European Radiology

, Volume 30, Issue 1, pp 119–127 | Cite as

Joint intracranial and carotid vessel wall imaging in 5 minutes using compressed sensing accelerated DANTE-SPACE

  • Sen Jia
  • Lei Zhang
  • Lijie Ren
  • Yulong Qi
  • Jinhao Ly
  • Na Zhang
  • Ye Li
  • Xin Liu
  • Hairong Zheng
  • Dong LiangEmail author
  • Yiu-cho Chung
Head and Neck



To compare visualization of joint intracranial and carotid vessel walls between 5× compressed sensing accelerated three-dimensional DANTE-SPACE sequence (CS VWI) acquired in 5 min and the same sequence accelerated by 2.7× parallel imaging (PI VWI) which takes 9–10 min currently.


Following institutional review board approval and informed consent, 28 subjects including 20 stroke patients underwent PI and CS VWI examinations with an acquired spatial resolution of isotropic 0.55 mm and joint coverage of intracranial and carotid arteries. Quantitative wall thickness measurements of CS VWI and PI VWI were compared on healthy volunteers and patients with wall thickening respectively. Subjective wall visualizations of the two VWI methods on patients were scored by two radiologists blindly and independently using a 4-point scale followed by inter-rater reproducibility analysis.


Linear regression analysis of wall thickness measurements showed excellent agreement between CS VWI and PI VWI in both healthy volunteers (r = 0.99) and stroke patients with wall thickening (r = 0.99). Subjective wall visualization score of CS VWI was slightly lower than PI VWI (3.13 ± 0.41 vs. 3.31 ± 0.79) but still had good diagnostic quality (> 3 based on a 4-point scale). The two radiologists’ scores agreed excellently, evidenced by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values being higher than 0.75 (p < 0.001).


Compressed sensing expedients joint intracranial and carotid VWI acquired at an isotropic resolution of 0.55 mm in 5 min without compromising quantitative vessel wall thickness measurement or diagnostic wall visualization.

Key Points

• CS VWI facilitates comprehensive visualization of intracranial and carotid vessel walls at an acquired isotropic resolution of 0.55 mm in a single 5-min scan.

• CS VWI affords comparable vessel wall visualization and morphology measurement as PI VWI with a shortened acquisition time by 45%.

• CS VWI alleviates the intensive trade-off between imaging resolution and scan time, and benefits the scan efficiency, motion robustness, and patient tolerance of high-resolution joint intracranial and carotid VWI.


Brain ischemia Intracranial atherosclerosis Carotid atherosclerosis Acceleration Magnetic resonance imaging 







Basilar artery


Common carotid artery


Contrast enhanced


Compressed sensing


Delay alternating with nutation for tailored excitation


Extracranial carotid artery


Internal carotid artery


Middle cerebral artery


Multi-planar reconstruction


Magnetic resonance angiography


Parallel imaging


Projection onto convex sets


Sampling perfection with application of optimized contrast using different flip angle evolution


Iterative self-consistent parallel imaging reconstruction


Vertebral artery


Vessel wall imaging



This study has received funding from the State Key Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 81830056), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 81801691), and the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (Grant No. 2018A030313204).

Compliance with ethical standards


The scientific guarantor of this publication is Xin Liu, MD.

Conflict of interest

Dr. Yiu-cho Chung is an employee of Siemens Healthcare Pte. Ltd., Singapore. Other authors of this manuscript declare no relationships with any companies, whose products or services may be related to the subject matter of the article.

Statistics and biometry

No complex statistical methods were necessary for this paper.

Informed consent

Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects (patients) in this study.

Ethical approval

Institutional Review Board approval was obtained.


• retrospective

• cross-sectional

• performed at one institution


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Copyright information

© European Society of Radiology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sen Jia
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lei Zhang
    • 1
  • Lijie Ren
    • 3
  • Yulong Qi
    • 4
  • Jinhao Ly
    • 5
  • Na Zhang
    • 1
  • Ye Li
    • 1
  • Xin Liu
    • 1
  • Hairong Zheng
    • 1
  • Dong Liang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yiu-cho Chung
    • 6
  1. 1.Paul C. Lauterbur Research Centre for Biomedical Imaging, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced TechnologyChinese Academy of SciencesShenzhenChina
  2. 2.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.Department of NeurologyShenzhen No.2 People’s HospitalShenzhenChina
  4. 4.Department of RadiologyBeijing University Shenzhen HospitalShenzhenChina
  5. 5.Department of RadiologyChinese People’s Liberation Army General HospitalBeijingChina
  6. 6.Siemens Healthcare Pte. LtdSingaporeSingapore

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