Comparison between M-score and LR-M in the reporting system of contrast-enhanced ultrasound LI-RADS
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To develop a contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) M-score and compare it with LR-M in CEUS Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS).
We retrospectively enrolled 105 consecutive high-risk patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 105 with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). The subjects were selected by propensity score matching between November 2003 and December 2017. A CEUS M-score for predicting ICC was constructed based on specific CEUS features by the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regularised regression. M-score was used to develop a modified CEUS LI-RADS. The diagnostic performance of the modified CEUS LI-RADS using M-score for diagnosing HCC and ICC was compared with American College of Radiology (ACR) CEUS LI-RADS using LR-M.
The most useful features for ICC were as follows: poorly circumscribed (69.52%), rim enhancement (63.81%), early washout (92.38%), intratumoural vein (56.19%), obscure boundary of intratumoural non-enhanced area (57.14%), and marked washout (59.05%, all p < 0.001). For predicting ICC, the M-score had a higher specificity (88.57% vs. 63.81%) with lower sensitivity (89.52% vs. 95.24%) compared with LR-M. For diagnosing HCC, the sensitivity of modified LI-RADS (80.95%) was much higher than that of ACR LI-RADS (57.14%), but the specificity was lower (90.48% vs. 96.19%). The area under the curve (AUC) of modified LI-RADS (0.857) was much higher than that of ACR LI-RADS (0.767, p = 0.0001). The modified positive predictive value (PPV) of ACR LI-RADS and modified LI-RADS were 99.42% and 98.99%, respectively.
The modified LI-RADS with M-score had higher sensitivity for diagnosing HCC and higher specificity for diagnosing ICC than ACR LI-RADS.
• For predicting ICC, the M-score had a higher specificity (88.57% vs. 63.81%) with lower sensitivity (89.52% vs. 95.24%) compared with LR-M.
• A CEUS M-score for predicting ICC consisted of more detailed CEUS features (poorly circumscribed, rim enhancement, early washout, intratumoural vein, obscure boundary of intratumoural non-enhanced area, and marked washout) was constructed.
• For diagnosing HCC, the sensitivity of modified LI-RADS (80.95%) was much higher than that of ACR LI-RADS (57.14%), but the specificity was lower (90.48% vs. 96.19%). The modified positive predictive value (PPV) of ACR LI-RADS and modified LI-RADS were 99.42% and 98.99%, respectively.
KeywordsUltrasonography Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Hepatitis
American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
American College of Radiology
Area under the curve
Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator
Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System
Negative predictive value
Positive predictive value
Receiver operating characteristic
This study has received funding by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (No: 81701719), the Guangdong Science and Technology Foundation (No: 2016A020215042), and the Guangdong Medical Scientific Research Foundation (No: 201611610484333).
Compliance with ethical standards
The scientific guarantor of this publication is Wei Wang.
Conflict of interest
The authors of this manuscript declare no relationships with any companies whose products or services may be related to the subject matter of the article.
Statistics and biometry
One of the authors has significant statistical expertise.
Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects (patients) in this study.
Institutional Review Board approval was obtained.
• diagnostic or prognostic study
• performed at one institution
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