How to utilize LR-M features of the LI-RADS to improve the diagnosis of combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma on gadoxetate-enhanced MRI?
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To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of each LR-M feature defined in version 2017 of the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) and determine the optimal LR-M feature for differentiating combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-CCA) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on gadoxetate-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Ninety-nine patients with pathologically proven cHCC-CCA (n = 33) or HCC (n = 66) after surgery were identified. Two radiologists retrospectively assessed preoperative gadoxetate-enhanced MRI for features favoring non-HCC malignancies (LR-M features) according to LI-RADS version 2017. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the independent differential features. The sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing cHCC-CCA were calculated for each LR-M feature.
Targetoid appearance showed the highest sensitivity (75.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 60.6%, 87.3%) to correctly identify cHCC-CCA as LR-M. At least one LR-M feature was observed in 31 (93.9%) patients with cHCC-CCA and 34 (51.5%) patients with HCC. The sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing cHCC-CCA using the presence of any one of the LR-M features were 93.9% (95% CI 80.7, 98.9) and 48.5% (95% CI 41.9, 51.0), respectively. The presence of three LR-M features yielded the highest diagnostic accuracy of 80.8% (95% CI 72.1, 86.1) with a reduced sensitivity of 54.5% (95% CI 41.4, 62.5).
The majority of cHCC-CCA cases can be properly categorized as LR-M when any one of the LR-M features defined in the LI-RADS version 2017 is used as a determiner. However, approximately half of HCC cases also show at least one LR-M feature.
• Targetoid appearance, including rim APHE, peripheral “washout” appearance, and delayed central enhancement, was the LR-M feature that identified cHCC-CCA as a non-HCC malignancy with the highest sensitivity.
• Most cHCC-CCA cases can be properly categorized as LR-M when the presence of any one of the LR-M features was used as the determiner.
• Approximately half of HCC cases also showed at least one LR-M feature.
KeywordsLiver neoplasm Hepatocellular carcinoma Magnetic resonance imaging Gadolinium ethoxybenzyl DTPA Contrast media
Arterial phase hyperenhancement
- LI-RADS v2017
Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2017
Tumors with imaging features of malignancy that are not specific for HCC
Magnetic resonance imaging
The authors state that this work has not received any funding.
Compliance with ethical standards
The scientific guarantor of this publication is Myeong-Jin Kim.
Conflict of interest
The authors of this manuscript declare no relationships with any companies, whose products or services may be related to the subject matter of the article.
Statistics and biometry
No complex statistical methods were necessary for this paper.
Written informed consent was waived by the Institutional Review Board.
Institutional Review Board approval was obtained.
• case-control study
• performed at one institution
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