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European Radiology

, Volume 29, Issue 4, pp 1703–1713 | Cite as

The “solid” component within subsolid nodules: imaging definition, display, and correlation with invasiveness of lung adenocarcinoma, a comparison of CT histograms and subjective evaluation

  • WenTing Tu
  • ZhaoBin Li
  • Yun Wang
  • Qiong Li
  • Yi Xia
  • Yu Guan
  • Yi Xiao
  • Li FanEmail author
  • ShiYuan LiuEmail author
Chest
  • 112 Downloads

Abstract

Objective

To validate three proposed definitions of the “solid” component of subsolid nodules, as compared to CT histograms and the use of different window settings, for discriminating the invasiveness of adenocarcinomas in a manner that facilitates routine clinical assessment.

Methods

We retrospectively analyzed 328 pathologically confirmed lung adenocarcinomas, manifesting as subsolid nodules. Three-dimensional CT histograms were generated by setting 11 CT attenuation intervals from − 400 to 50 HU, at 50 HU intervals, and the voxel percentage within each CT attenuation interval was generated automatically. Three definitions of the “solid” component were proposed, and 10 medium window settings were set to evaluate the “solid” component. The diagnostic performance of the three definitions for identifying invasive adenocarcinoma was compared with that of CT histogram analysis and subjective evaluation with medium window settings.

Results

A parallel diagnosis using five intervals with the largest AUC (AUC ≥ 0.797) demonstrated good differential diagnostic performance, with 78% sensitivity and 73.7% specificity. Definition 2 (visibility in the mediastinum window) yielded higher accuracy (75.6%) than the other two definitions (p < 0.01). A medium window setting of − 50 WL/2 WW gave a larger AUC than the other nine medium window settings as well as definition 2, with 82.5% specificity and 88.5% PPV, which was higher than those of parallel diagnosis with CT histogram and definition 2.

Conclusion

Using − 50 WL/2 WW is the optimum approach for evaluating the “solid” component and discriminating invasiveness, superior to using 3D CT histograms and definition 2, and convenient in routine clinical assessment.

Key Points

• − 50 WL/2 WW gave a larger AUC than definition 2.

• The specificity of − 50 WL/2 WW was higher than CT histograms.

• − 50 WL/2 WW offers the best evaluation of the solid component.

Keywords

Lung Adenocarcinoma Solitary pulmonary nodule Tomography, X-ray computed 

Abbreviations

AAH

Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia

AIS

Adenocarcinoma in situ

AUC

Area under the curve

CT

Computed tomography

DFS

Disease-free survival

GGNs

Ground-glass nodules

IAC

Invasive adenocarcinoma

IASLC/ATS/ERS

International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society

LW

Lung window

MIA

Minimally invasive adenocarcinoma

MW

Mediastinal window

NPV

Negative predictive value

NSNs

Nonsolid nodules

NRI

Net reclassification improvement

OR

Odds ratio

PSNs

Part-solid nodules

PPV

Positive predictive value

ROC

Receiver operating characteristic

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the assistance of the United Imaging Healthcare Co. Ltd. for the pulmonary nodule advanced analysis tool software development and technical support.

Funding

This study has received funding from the National Key R&D Program of China (grant number 2016YFE0103000, 2017YFC1308703), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant number 81871321, 81370035), and the Youth Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant number 81501618, 81501470).

Compliance with ethical standards

Guarantor

The scientific guarantor of this publication is Prof. Li FAN.

Conflict of interest

The authors of this manuscript declare no relationships with any companies, whose products or services may be related to the subject matter of the article.

Statistics and biometry

Prof. Jian Lu (Department of Statistics, Second Military Medical University) kindly provided statistical advice for this manuscript.

Informed consent

Written informed consent was waived by the Institutional Review Board.

Ethical approval

An Institutional Review Board approval was obtained.

Methodology

• Retrospective

• Diagnostic or prognostic study

• Performed at one institution

Supplementary material

330_2018_5778_MOESM1_ESM.docx (112 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 112 kb)

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Copyright information

© European Society of Radiology 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Radiology, Changzheng HospitalSecond Military Medical UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Department of Radiation OncologyShanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s HospitalShanghaiChina

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