C-Arm computed tomography (CACT)-guided balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA): Evaluation of patient safety and peri- and post-procedural complications
To assess the frequency and severity of complications of balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) using C-arm computed tomography (CACT) guidance.
Material and methods
266 consecutive interventions in 67 patients (42 females, mean age 66 ± 13 years) were included. Selective CACT was acquired prior to the intervention for three-dimensional (3D) guidance and to select appropriate balloon size based on the measured vessel diameter. Complications during and after the procedure, the need for further interventions and the impact on patient safety and outcome were assessed and categorised according to the SIR Classification System to Complications by Outcome (Grade A–F).
Overall, 237 interventions were conducted without any complications (89.1%). Minor complications not requiring additional treatment occurred during or after 25 procedures (9.4%), including recurring dry cough in four patients during a total of 11 interventions (4.1%) (Grade A), three focal dissections of the targeted pulmonary artery (1.1%), four cases of pulmonary haemorrhage (1.5%), one case of reperfusion oedema (0.4%) and six cases of post-interventional short-term hemoptysis (2.3%) (Grade B). Four cases of major complications requiring additional treatment were observed (1.5%): one case of pulmonary haemorrhage (0.4%) and two cases of post-interventional haemoptysis (0.8%), all resolved after medical therapy without requiring further intervention, and one case of atrial tachycardia induced during catheterisation, subsequently requiring pharmacological cardioversion (0.4%) (Grade C). No fatal or life-threatening peri- or post-interventional complications or mortality were observed (Grade D–F).
BPA performed under CACT guidance appears to be a safe procedure with a low risk of severe complications.
• CACT guidance of BPA is safe and successful.
• CACT-guided BPA procedures have a low complication profile.
• CACT guidance is a valuable tool to navigate BPA.
KeywordsPulmonary hypertension Cone beam computed tomography Angioplasty
Balloon pulmonary angioplasty
C-arm computed tomography
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension
Digital subtraction angiography
Low molecular-weight heparin
Multidetector computed tomography
Mean pulmonary artery pressure
Optical coherence tomography
Pulmonary vascular resistance
- V/Q SPECT
Ventilation/perfusion single photon emission computed tomography
The study was funded in parts by personal grants from the “Junge Akademie” of Hannover Medical School (Dr. Maschke, Dr. Hinrichs and Dr. Renne).
Compliance with ethical standards
The scientific guarantor of this publication is Frank Wacker.
Conflict of interest
The authors of this manuscript declare relationships with the following companies: Siemens Healthcare and ProMedicus (Bernhard Meyer and Frank Wacker; outside the submitted work); Bayer (Marius Hoeper and Karen Olsson; outside the submitted work). The remaining authors declare no relationships with any companies whose products or services may be related to the subject matter of the article.
Statistics and biometry
One of the authors has significant statistical expertise.
Written informed consent was waived by the Institutional Review Board.
Institutional Review Board approval was obtained.
• Experimental/intra-individual comparison
• Performed at one institution
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