European Radiology

, Volume 28, Issue 9, pp 3929–3935 | Cite as

Radiation exposure during CT-guided biopsies: recent CT machines provide markedly lower doses

  • Nika GuberinaEmail author
  • Michael Forsting
  • Adrian Ringelstein
  • Saravanabavaan Suntharalingam
  • Kai Nassenstein
  • Jens Theysohn
  • Axel Wetter
Computed Tomography



To examine radiation dose levels of CT-guided interventional procedures of chest, abdomen, spine and extremities on different CT-scanner generations at a large multicentre institute.

Materials and methods

1,219 CT-guided interventional biopsies of different organ regions ((A) abdomen (n=516), (B) chest (n=528), (C) spine (n=134) and (D) extremities (n=41)) on different CT-scanners ((I) SOMATOM-Definition-AS+, (II) Volume-Zoom, (III) Emotion6) were included from 2013–2016. Important CT-parameters and standard dose-descriptors were retrospectively examined. Additionally, effective dose and organ doses were calculated using Monte-Carlo simulation, following ICRP103.


Overall, radiation doses for CT interventions are highly dependent on CT-scanner generation: the newer the CT scanner, the lower the radiation dose imparted to patients. Mean effective doses for each of four procedures on available scanners are: (A) (I) 9.3mSv versus (II) 13.9mSv (B) (I) 7.3mSv versus (III) 11.4mSv (C) (I) 6.3mSv versus (II) 7.4mSv (D) (I) 4.3mSv versus (II) 10.8mSv. Standard dose descriptors [standard deviation (SD); CT dose indexvol (CTDIvol); dose-length product (DLPbody); size-specific dose estimate (SSDE)] were also compared.


Effective dose, organ doses and SSDE for various CT-guided interventional biopsies on different CT-scanner generations following recommendations of the ICRP103 are provided. New CT-scanner generations involve markedly lower radiation doses versus older devices.

Key Points

• Effective dose, organ dose and SSDE are provided for CT-guided interventional examinations.

• These data allow identifying organs at risk of higher radiation dose.

• Detailed knowledge of radiation dose may contribute to a better individual risk-stratification.

• New CT-scanner generations involve markedly lower radiation doses compared to older devices.


Radiation exposure Image-guided biopsy Multidetector computed tomography Radiation monitoring Ionizing radiation 



Combined Applications to Reduce Exposure


Computed tomography


CT dose indexvol


Dose-length product


International Commission on Radiological Protection


Kilovolt (tube voltage)


Milliampere second (tube current–time product)


Sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction


Standard deviation


Size-specific dose estimate


Water equivalent diameter



The authors state that this work has not received any funding.

Compliance with ethical standards


The scientific guarantor of this publication is Guberina.

Conflict of interest

The authors of this manuscript declare no relationships with any companies whose products or services may be related to the subject matter of the article.

Statistics and biometry

One of the authors has significant statistical expertise.

No complex statistical methods were necessary for this paper.

Informed consent

Written informed consent was waived by the Institutional Review Board.

Ethical approval

Institutional Review Board approval was obtained.


prospective / retrospective


multicentre study


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Copyright information

© European Society of Radiology 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nika Guberina
    • 1
    Email author
  • Michael Forsting
    • 1
  • Adrian Ringelstein
    • 1
  • Saravanabavaan Suntharalingam
    • 1
  • Kai Nassenstein
    • 1
  • Jens Theysohn
    • 1
  • Axel Wetter
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and NeuroradiologyUniversity Hospital EssenEssenGermany

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