GRASE Revisited: breath-hold three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography using a Gradient and Spin Echo (GRASE) technique at 3T
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To evaluate the clinical feasibility and image quality of breath-hold (BH) three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) using a gradient and spin-echo (GRASE) technique compared to the conventional 3D respiratory-triggered (RT)-MRCP using a turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequence at 3 T.
Sixty-six patients underwent both 3D RT-TSE-MRCP and 3D BH-GRASE-MRCP at 3 T. Three radiologists independently reviewed the visualisation of biliary and pancreatic ducts, image blurring, and overall image quality of the two data sets using four- or five-point scales. The numbers of scans with non-diagnostic or poor image quality were compared between the two scans.
The 3D BH-GRASE-MRCP had a significantly better image quality (3.69 ± 0.77 vs. 3.30 ± 1.18, p = 0.005) and less image blurring (3.23 ± 0.94 vs. 3.65 ± 0.57, p = 0.0003) than the 3D RT-TSE-MRCP. In detail, 3D BH-GRASE-MRCP better depicted the common bile duct, cystic duct, and bilateral first intrahepatic duct (all ps < 0.05). The number of scans with non-diagnostic or poor image quality significantly decreased with 3D BH-GRASE-MRCP compared with 3D RT-TSE-MRCP [19.7% (13/66) vs. 1.5% (1/66), p = 0.002].
The 3D BH-GRASE-MRCP provided better image quality and a reduced number of non-diagnostic images compared to 3D RT-TSE-MRCP.
• The GRASE technique enabled 3D MRCP acquisition within a single breath-hold.
• The short acquisition time of 3D BH-GRASE-MRCP significantly reduced image blurring.
• The 3D BH-GRASE-MRCP had a better image quality than 3D RT-TSE-MRCP.
• The number of non-diagnostic scans was reduced with 3D BH-GRASE-MRCP.
KeywordsBreath holding Magnetic resonance imaging Cholangiography Imaging, Three-dimensional Biliary tract
Common Bile Duct
Echo Planar Imaging
Field of View
Gradient and Spin Echo
Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography
The authors state that this work has not received any funding.
Compliance with ethical standards
The scientific guarantor of this publication is Jeong Hee Yoon.
Conflict of interest
Two authors (E. Kim, J. Peeters) are employees of Philips Healthcare. Other authors of this manuscript declare no relationships with any companies, whose products or services may be related to the subject matter of the article.
Statistics and biometry
No complex statistical methods were necessary for this paper.
Written informed consent was waived by the Institutional Review Board.
Seoul National University Hospital Institutional Review Board approval was obtained.
• case-control study
• performed at one institution
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