European Radiology

, Volume 28, Issue 5, pp 1900–1908 | Cite as

Larger volume and different functional connectivity of the amygdala in women with premenstrual syndrome

  • Demao DengEmail author
  • Yong Pang
  • Gaoxiong Duan
  • Huimei Liu
  • Hai Liao
  • Peng Liu
  • Yanfei Liu
  • Shasha Li
  • Wenfu Chen
  • Danhong Wen
  • Chunmei Xuan
  • Min Li
Magnetic Resonance



To assess structural and functional changes of the amygdala due to premenstrual syndrome (PMS) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).


Twenty PMS patients and 21 healthy control (HC) subjects underwent a 6-min resting-state fMRI scan during the luteal phase as well as scanning high-resolution T1-weighted images. Subcortical amygdala-related volume and functional connectivity (FC) were estimated between the two groups. Each subject completed a daily record of severity of problems (DRSP) to measure the severity of clinical symptoms.


Greater bilateral amygdalae volumes were found in PMS patients compared with HC subjects, and PMS patients had increased FC between the amygdala and certain regions of the frontal cortex (e.g. medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), right precentral gyrus), the right temporal pole and the insula, as well as decreased FC between the bilateral amygdalae and the right orbitofrontal cortex and right hippocampus. The strength of FC between the right amygdala and right precentral gyrus, left ACC and left mPFC were significantly and positively correlated with DRSP scores in PMS patients.


Our findings may improve our understanding of the neural mechanisms involved in PMS.

Key Points

Functional and structural MRI used to explore amygdala in PMS patients.

Aberrant amygdala structural and functional connectivity were found in PMS patients.

Amygdala strength FC was positively correlated with individual clinical symptom scores.


Premenstrual syndrome Amygdala Magnetic resonance imaging Brain Neuroimaging 



Anterior cingulate cortex


Affective network


Body mass index


Blood oxygenation level dependent


Default mode network


Daily record of severity of problems


Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5th Edition


Echo planar imaging


Functional magnetic resonance imaging


Field of view


Healthy control




Medial prefrontal cortex


Orbitofrontal cortex


Premenstrual dysphoric disorder


Premenstrual syndrome


Region of interest


Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging


Echo time


Repetition time



The present study was supported by the Guangxi Natural Science Foundation [Grant No. 2017JJB10213, 2016GXNSFAA380086, 2011GXNSFA018176] and National Natural Science Foundation of China [Grant No. 81760886, 81471738, 81303060].

Compliance with ethical standards


The scientific guarantor of this publication is Demao Deng.

Conflict of interest

The authors of this manuscript declare no relationships with any companies whose products or services may be related to the subject matter of the article.

Informed consent

All participants were informed about the experimental procedure and provided written informed consent.

Ethical approval

The study was approved by the Medicine Ethics Committee of First Affiliated Hospital, Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Guangxi, China.


• prospective

• case-control study

• performed at one institution

Supplementary material

330_2017_5206_MOESM1_ESM.doc (74 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 74 kb)


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Copyright information

© European Society of Radiology 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Radiology, First Affiliated HospitalGuangxi University of Chinese MedicineNanningChina
  2. 2.Department of Acupuncture, First Affiliated HospitalGuangxi University of Chinese MedicineNanningChina
  3. 3.Life Science Research Center, School of Life Science and TechnologyXidian UniversityXi’anChina
  4. 4.Department of Teaching, First Affiliated HospitalGuangxi University of Chinese MedicineNanningChina

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