Larger volume and different functional connectivity of the amygdala in women with premenstrual syndrome
To assess structural and functional changes of the amygdala due to premenstrual syndrome (PMS) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Twenty PMS patients and 21 healthy control (HC) subjects underwent a 6-min resting-state fMRI scan during the luteal phase as well as scanning high-resolution T1-weighted images. Subcortical amygdala-related volume and functional connectivity (FC) were estimated between the two groups. Each subject completed a daily record of severity of problems (DRSP) to measure the severity of clinical symptoms.
Greater bilateral amygdalae volumes were found in PMS patients compared with HC subjects, and PMS patients had increased FC between the amygdala and certain regions of the frontal cortex (e.g. medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), right precentral gyrus), the right temporal pole and the insula, as well as decreased FC between the bilateral amygdalae and the right orbitofrontal cortex and right hippocampus. The strength of FC between the right amygdala and right precentral gyrus, left ACC and left mPFC were significantly and positively correlated with DRSP scores in PMS patients.
Our findings may improve our understanding of the neural mechanisms involved in PMS.
• Functional and structural MRI used to explore amygdala in PMS patients.
• Aberrant amygdala structural and functional connectivity were found in PMS patients.
• Amygdala strength FC was positively correlated with individual clinical symptom scores.
KeywordsPremenstrual syndrome Amygdala Magnetic resonance imaging Brain Neuroimaging
Anterior cingulate cortex
Body mass index
Blood oxygenation level dependent
Default mode network
Daily record of severity of problems
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5th Edition
Echo planar imaging
Functional magnetic resonance imaging
Field of view
Medial prefrontal cortex
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder
Region of interest
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging
The present study was supported by the Guangxi Natural Science Foundation [Grant No. 2017JJB10213, 2016GXNSFAA380086, 2011GXNSFA018176] and National Natural Science Foundation of China [Grant No. 81760886, 81471738, 81303060].
Compliance with ethical standards
The scientific guarantor of this publication is Demao Deng.
Conflict of interest
The authors of this manuscript declare no relationships with any companies whose products or services may be related to the subject matter of the article.
All participants were informed about the experimental procedure and provided written informed consent.
The study was approved by the Medicine Ethics Committee of First Affiliated Hospital, Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Guangxi, China.
• case-control study
• performed at one institution
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