Re-exposure to low osmolar iodinated contrast media in patients with prior moderate-to-severe hypersensitivity reactions: A multicentre retrospective cohort study
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To evaluate the outcomes of re-exposure to low-osmolar iodinated contrast medium (LOCM) in patients with a history of moderate-to-severe hypersensitivity reaction (HSR).
We retrospectively evaluated a cohort comprising all subjects satisfying the following conditions at 11 centres: (1) experienced a moderate-to-severe HSR to LOCM by December 2014, and (2) underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography after the initial HSR between January 2014 and December 2014.
A total of 150 patients with 328 instances of re-exposure were included; the recurrence rate of HSR was 19.5%. Patients with severe initial HSR exhibited a higher recurrence rate of severe HSR compared to patients with moderate initial HSR, despite more intensive premedication. In the multivariate analysis, the independent risk factors for recurrence of HSR were diabetes, chronic urticaria, drug allergy other than to iodinated contrast media (ICM) and severe initial HSR. The risk of recurrent HSR was 67.1% lower in cases where the implicated ICM was changed to another one (odds ratio: 0.329; P = 0.001). However, steroid premedication did not show protective effects against recurrent HSR.
In high-risk patients who have previously experienced a moderate-to-severe initial HSR to LOCM, we should consider changing the implicated ICM to reduce recurrence risk.
• In patients with moderate-to-severe HSR, steroid premedication only shows limited effectiveness.
• Changing the implicated ICM can reduce the recurrence of HSR to ICM.
• Diabetes, chronic urticaria and drug allergies increase the risk of ICM HSR.
KeywordsContrast media Drug hypersensitivity Hypersensitivity, Immediate Premedication Secondary prevention
American College of Radiology
European Society of Urogenital Radiology
Generalized estimation equation
Iodinated contrast medium
Low-osmolar iodinated contrast medium
The scientific guarantor of this publication is Hye-Ryun Kang. The authors of this manuscript declare no relationships with any companies whose products or services may be related to the subject matter of the article. The authors state that this work has not received any funding. No complex statistical methods were necessary for this paper. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained. Written informed consent was waived by the Institutional Review Board. This was a retrospective observational multicentre study.