European Radiology

, Volume 26, Issue 11, pp 3949–3956 | Cite as

Feasibility of test-bolus DCE-MRI using CAIPIRINHA-VIBE for the evaluation of pancreatic malignancies

  • Jimi Huh
  • Yoonseok Choi
  • Dong-Cheol Woo
  • Nieun Seo
  • Bohyun Kim
  • Chang Kyung Lee
  • In Seong Kim
  • Dominik Nickel
  • Kyung Won KimEmail author
Magnetic Resonance



To evaluate the feasibility of test-bolus dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI with CAIPIRINHA-VIBE for pancreatic malignancies.


Thirty-two patients underwent DCE-MRI with CAIPIRINHA-VIBE after injection of 2 mL gadolinium. From the resulting time–intensity curve (TIC), we estimated the arterial (AP) and portal venous phase (PVP) scan timing for subsequent multiphasic MRI. DCE-MRI perfusion maps were generated, and perfusion parameters were calculated. The image quality was rated on a 5-point scale (1: poor, 5: excellent). Goodness-of-fit of the TIC was evaluated by Pearson’s χ2 test.


Test-bolus DCE-MRIs with high temporal (3 s) and spatial resolution (1 × 1 × 4 mm3) were acquired with good-quality perfusion maps of Ktrans and iAUC (mean score 4.313 ± 0.535 and 4.125 ± 0.554, respectively). The mean χ2 values for fitted TICs were 0.115 ± 0.082 for the pancreatic parenchyma and 0.784 ± 0.074 for pancreatic malignancies, indicating an acceptable goodness-of-fit. Test-bolus DCE-MRI was highly accurate in estimating the proper timing of AP (90.6 %) and PVP (100 %) of subsequent multiphasic MRI. Between pancreatic adenocarcinomas and neuroendocrine tumours, there were significant differences in the Ktrans (0.073 ± 0.058 vs. 0.308 ± 0.062, respectively; p = 0.007) and iAUC (1.501 ± 0.828 vs. 3.378 ± 0.378, respectively; p = 0.045).


Test-bolus DCE-MRI using CAIPIRINHA-VIBE is feasible for incorporating perfusion analysis of pancreatic tumours into routine multiphasic MRI.

Key Points

Test-bolus DCE-MRI using CAIPIRINHA-VIBE is feasible for perfusion analysis of pancreatic tumours.

CAIPIRINHA-VIBE enables DCE-MRI with high temporal and spatial resolution.

Test-bolus DCE-MRI is highly accurate in estimating the proper timing of multiphasic MRI.


Magnetic resonance imaging Pancreas Neoplasms Perfusion imaging Feasibility studies 



Dynamic contrast-enhanced


Arterial phase


Portal venous phase


Controlled aliasing in parallel imaging results in higher acceleration


Volume interpolated breath-hold examination


Time-intensity curve


Time to peak aorta enhancement


Volume transfer constant


Initial area under the concentration curve in 60 s


Radial T1-weighted gradient-echo sequence


K-space-weighted image contrast



The scientific guarantor of this publication is Kyung Won Kim. Two authors (In Seong Kim, Dominik Nickel) are employees of Siemens Healthcare. They provided us technical advice. However, they did not control or access the patients’ data. Only authors from academic institution handled the patients’ data. This study was supported by a grant (No. 2015-0636) from the Asan Institute for Life Sciences of Asan Medical Center and a grant (No. 2014R1A1A1006823) from the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT, & Future Planning. This study did not require a statistical expertise, because it is a study to evaluate technical feasibility. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained. Informed consent was waived because of the retrospective nature of this study. Methodology: retrospective, observational, performed at one institution.


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Copyright information

© European Society of Radiology 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jimi Huh
    • 1
  • Yoonseok Choi
    • 2
  • Dong-Cheol Woo
    • 2
  • Nieun Seo
    • 1
  • Bohyun Kim
    • 1
  • Chang Kyung Lee
    • 2
  • In Seong Kim
    • 3
  • Dominik Nickel
    • 4
  • Kyung Won Kim
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical CenterUniversity of Ulsan College of MedicineSeoulKorea
  2. 2.Bioimaging Center, Asan Institute for Life SciencesAsan Medical CenterSeoulKorea
  3. 3.Siemens HealthcareSeoulKorea
  4. 4.Siemens HealthcareErlangenGermany

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