European Radiology

, Volume 26, Issue 9, pp 3310–3318 | Cite as

Contrast-induced nephropathy in CT: incidence, risk factors and strategies for prevention

  • Shu Min Tao
  • Julian L. Wichmann
  • U. Joseph Schoepf
  • Stephen R. Fuller
  • Guang Ming Lu
  • Long Jiang ZhangEmail author
Contrast Media


In the past, a high percentage of hospital-acquired renal failure was attributed to contrast media. That position is now very controversial. Recently, doubts have been raised regarding the real relationship between acute kidney injury and intravenous contrast media administration. Similarly, statements about specific methods of preventing contrast-inducing nephropathy have been challenged. This review article addresses the controversies of incidence, causation, and prevention in an attempt to help the practicing radiologist adopt methods for their own department.

Key Points

The reported CIN incidence ranges from 2–12 % following contrast-enhanced CT.

Studies without a non-contrast CT control group may overestimate CIN incidence.

Development and application of a comprehensive CIN prevention strategy is recommended.


Acute kidney injury Contrast-induced nephropathy Computed tomography Contrast media Prevention strategy 



The scientific guarantor of this publication is Long Jiang Zhang. The authors of this manuscript declare relationships with the following companies: UJS is a consultant for and receives research support from Bayer, Bracco, GE, Medrad, and Siemens. The other authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

This study has received funding from the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (NCET-12-0260 to LJZ). No complex statistical methods were necessary for this paper. Institutional review board approval was not obtained because this is a review paper. Written informed consent was not obtained because this is a review paper. No study subjects or cohorts have been previously reported. Methodology: performed at one institution.


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Copyright information

© European Society of Radiology 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shu Min Tao
    • 1
  • Julian L. Wichmann
    • 2
    • 3
  • U. Joseph Schoepf
    • 2
  • Stephen R. Fuller
    • 2
  • Guang Ming Lu
    • 1
  • Long Jiang Zhang
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling HospitalMedical School of Nanjing UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.Division of Cardiovascular ImagingMedical University of South CarolinaCharlestonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Diagnostic and Interventional RadiologyUniversity Hospital FrankfurtFrankfurtGermany

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