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European Radiology

, Volume 26, Issue 6, pp 1529–1537 | Cite as

Persistent pulmonary subsolid nodules with solid portions of 5 mm or smaller: Their natural course and predictors of interval growth

  • Jong Hyuk Lee
  • Chang Min ParkEmail author
  • Sang Min Lee
  • Hyungjin Kim
  • H. Page McAdams
  • Jin Mo Goo
Chest

Abstract

Objective

To investigate the natural course of persistent pulmonary subsolid nodules (SSNs) with solid portions ≤5 mm and the clinico-radiological features that influence interval growth over follow-ups.

Methods

From 2005 to 2013, the natural courses of 213 persistent SSNs in 213 patients were evaluated. To identify significant predictors of interval growth, Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazard regression analysis were performed.

Results

Among the 213 nodules, 136 were pure ground-glass nodules (GGNs; growth, 18; stable, 118) and 77 were part-solid GGNs with solid portions ≤5 mm (growth, 24; stable, 53). For all SSNs, lung cancer history (p = 0.001), part-solid GGNs (p < 0.001), and nodule diameter (p < 0.001) were significant predictors for interval growth. On subgroup analysis, nodule diameter was an independent predictor for the interval growth of both pure GGNs (p < 0.001), and part-solid GGNs (p = 0.037). For part-solid GGNs, lung cancer history (p = 0.002) was another significant predictor of the interval growth. Interval growth of pure GGNs ≥10 mm and part-solid GGNs ≥8 mm were significantly more frequent than in pure GGNs <10 mm (p < 0.001) and part-solid GGNs <8 mm (p = 0.003), respectively.

Conclusion

The natural course of SSNs with solid portions ≤5 mm differed significantly according to their nodule type and nodule diameters, with which their management can be subdivided.

Key Points

Pure GGNs ≥10 mm have significantly more frequent interval growth than those <10 mm.

Part-solid GGNs ≥8 mm have significantly more frequent interval growth than those <8 mm.

Management of SSNs with solid portions ≤5 mm can be subdivided by diameter.

Keywords

Lung adenocarcinoma Adenocarcinoma in situ Computed tomography Portion size Follow-up studies 

Abbreviations

SSN

Subsolid nodule

GGN

Ground-glass nodule

AAH

Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia

AIS

Adenocarcinoma-in-situ

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by a research grant from the Korean Foundation for Cancer Research (grant number: CB-2011-02-01). The scientific guarantor of this publication is Prof. Dr. Chang Min Park. The authors of this manuscript declare no relationships with any companies whose products or services may be related to the subject matter of the article. This study has received funding by the Research of the Korean Foundation for Cancer Research (grant number: CB-2011-02-01).One of the authors has significant statistical expertise: Chang Min Park, MD (Seoul National University Hospital). Institutional review board approval was obtained. Requirement of written informed consent was waived by the institutional review board. The study population of the present study was extracted from our ground-glass nodule registry of Seoul National University Hospital. Thus, of the 213 subsolid nodules (SSNs) in 213 patients in this study, some had been reported in our previous studies [17, 18, 19, 20]. Methodology: retrospective, diagnostic or prognostic study, performed at one institution.

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Copyright information

© European Society of Radiology 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jong Hyuk Lee
    • 1
  • Chang Min Park
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Sang Min Lee
    • 4
  • Hyungjin Kim
    • 1
    • 5
  • H. Page McAdams
    • 3
  • Jin Mo Goo
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of RadiologySeoul National University College of Medicine, and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research CenterSeoulKorea
  2. 2.Cancer Research InstituteSeoul National UniversitySeoulKorea
  3. 3.Department of RadiologyDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA
  4. 4.Department of RadiologyUniversity of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical CenterSeoulKorea
  5. 5.Aerospace Medical GroupAir Force Education and Training CommandJinjuKorea

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