European Radiology

, Volume 23, Issue 9, pp 2522–2531 | Cite as

Magnetic resonance imaging for the clinical management of rectal cancer patients: recommendations from the 2012 European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology (ESGAR) consensus meeting

  • Regina G. H. Beets-TanEmail author
  • Doenja M. J. Lambregts
  • Monique Maas
  • Shandra Bipat
  • Brunella Barbaro
  • Filipe Caseiro-Alves
  • Luís Curvo-Semedo
  • Helen M. Fenlon
  • Marc J. Gollub
  • Sofia Gourtsoyianni
  • Steve Halligan
  • Christine Hoeffel
  • Seung Ho Kim
  • Andrea Laghi
  • Andrea Maier
  • Søren R. Rafaelsen
  • Jaap Stoker
  • Stuart A. Taylor
  • Michael R. Torkzad
  • Lennart Blomqvist



To develop guidelines describing a standardised approach regarding the acquisition, interpretation and reporting of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for clinical staging and restaging of rectal cancer.


A consensus meeting of 14 abdominal imaging experts from the European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology (ESGAR) was conducted following the RAND-UCLA Appropriateness Method. Two independent (non-voting) chairs facilitated the meeting. Two hundred and thirty-six items were scored by participants for appropriateness and classified subsequently as appropriate or inappropriate (defined by ≥ 80 % consensus) or uncertain (defined by < 80 % consensus). Items not reaching 80 % consensus were noted.


Consensus was reached for 88 % of items: recommendations regarding hardware, patient preparation, imaging sequences, angulation, criteria for MRI assessment and MRI reporting were constructed from these.


These expert consensus recommendations can be used as clinical guidelines for primary staging and restaging of rectal cancer using MRI.

Key Points

These guidelines recommend standardised imaging for staging and restaging of rectal cancer.

The guidelines were constructed through consensus amongst 14 abdominal imaging experts.

Consensus was reached by in 88 % of 236 items discussed.


Rectal cancer Consensus Guideline Magnetic resonance imaging Tumour staging 

Supplementary material

330_2013_2864_MOESM1_ESM.xls (68 kb)
Online Resource 1 (XLS 67.5 KB)


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Copyright information

© European Society of Radiology 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Regina G. H. Beets-Tan
    • 1
    • 17
    Email author
  • Doenja M. J. Lambregts
    • 1
  • Monique Maas
    • 1
  • Shandra Bipat
    • 2
  • Brunella Barbaro
    • 3
  • Filipe Caseiro-Alves
    • 4
  • Luís Curvo-Semedo
    • 4
  • Helen M. Fenlon
    • 5
  • Marc J. Gollub
    • 6
  • Sofia Gourtsoyianni
    • 7
    • 8
  • Steve Halligan
    • 9
  • Christine Hoeffel
    • 10
  • Seung Ho Kim
    • 11
  • Andrea Laghi
    • 12
  • Andrea Maier
    • 13
  • Søren R. Rafaelsen
    • 14
  • Jaap Stoker
    • 2
  • Stuart A. Taylor
    • 9
  • Michael R. Torkzad
    • 15
  • Lennart Blomqvist
    • 16
  1. 1.Maastricht University Medical Centre+MaastrichtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Academic Medical CentreAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Catholic University School of MedicineRomeItaly
  4. 4.Coimbra University HospitalsCoimbraPortugal
  5. 5.Mater Misericordiae University HospitalDublinIreland
  6. 6.Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer CenterNew YorkUSA
  7. 7.University Hospital of HeraklionCreteGreece
  8. 8.Guy’s & St. Thomas’ NHS FTLondonUK
  9. 9.Centre for Medical ImagingUniversity College LondonLondonUnited Kingdom
  10. 10.Reims University HospitalReimsFrance
  11. 11.Inje University Haeundae Paik HospitalBusanSouth-Korea
  12. 12.Sapienza - University of RomeRomeItaly
  13. 13.Medical University of ViennaViennaAustria
  14. 14.Vejle HospitalVejleDenmark
  15. 15.Uppsala UniversityUppsalaSweden
  16. 16.Karolinska University Hospital and Karolinska InstitutetStockholmSweden
  17. 17.Department of RadiologyMaastricht University Medical Centre+MaastrichtThe Netherlands

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