A novel tract imaging technique of the brainstem using phase difference enhanced imaging: normal anatomy and initial experience in multiple system atrophy
- 546 Downloads
To develop a new tract imaging technique for visualising small fibre tracts of the brainstem and for detecting the abnormalities in multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type (MSA-C) using a phase difference enhanced (PADRE) imaging technique, in which the phase difference between the target and surrounding tissue is selectively enhanced.
Two neuroradiologists compared the high-spatial-resolution PADRE imaging, which was acquired from six healthy volunteers, three patients with MSA-C, and 7 patients with other types of neurodegenerative diseases involving the brainstem or cerebellum.
Various fine fibre tracts in the brainstem, the superior and inferior cerebellar peduncles, medial lemniscus, spinothalamic tract, medial longitudinal fasciculus, central tegmental tract, corticospinal tract and transverse pontine fibres, were identified on PADRE imaging. PADRE imaging from MSA-C demonstrated the disappearance of transverse pontine fibres and significant atrophy of the inferior cerebellar peduncles, while the superior cerebellar peduncles were intact. PADRE imaging also demonstrated that the transverse pontine fibres and inferior cerebellar peduncle were not involved in the other neurodegenerative diseases.
PADRE imaging can offer a new form of tract imaging of the brainstem and may have the potential to reinforce the clinical utility of MRI in differentiating MSA from other conditions.
KeywordsMRI Brainstem anatomy Tract imaging Phase difference enhanced imaging Multiple system atrophy
- 5.Haacke EM, Ayaz M, Khan A, Manova ES, Krishnamurthy B, Gollapalli L, Ciulla C, Kim I, Petersen F, Kirsch W (2007) Establishing a baseline phase behavior in magnetic resonance imaging to determine normal vs. abnormal iron content in the brain. J Magn Reson Imaging 26:256–264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 7.Yoneda T (2009) Triple-layer appearance of human cerebral cortices on phase-difference enhanced imaging using 3D principle of echo shifting with a train of observations (PRESTO) sequence. Proc Int Soc Magn Reson Med 17:27Google Scholar
- 10.Harding AE, Deufel T (eds) (1993) Inherited ataxias. In: Advances in neurology, vol 61. New York: RavenGoogle Scholar
- 11.Nolte J (2003) The human brain, 5th edn. Mosby Year Book, St LouisGoogle Scholar
- 22.Giussani C, Poliakov A, Ferri RT, Plawner LL, Browd SR, Shaw DW, Filardi TZ, Hoeppner C, Geyer JR, Olson JM, Douglas JG, Villavicencio EH, Ellenbogen RG, Ojemann JG (2010) DTI fiber tracking to differentiate demyelinating diseases from diffuse brain stem glioma. Neuroimage 52:217–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar