Advertisement

European Radiology

, Volume 19, Issue 8, pp 2000–2008 | Cite as

Radiation exposure of medical staff from interventional x-ray procedures: a multicentre study

  • Uwe Häusler
  • Renate Czarwinski
  • Gunnar Brix
Interventional

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to analyse the radiation exposure of medical staff from interventional x-ray procedures. Partial-body dose measurements were performed with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) in 39 physicians and nine assistants conducting 73 interventional procedures of nine different types in 14 hospitals in Germany. Fluoroscopy time and the dose–area product (DAP) were recorded too. The median (maximum) equivalent body dose per procedure was 16 (2,500) µSv for an unshielded person; the partial-body dose per procedure was 2.8 (240) µSv to the eye lens, 4.1 (730) µSv to the thyroid, 44 (1,800) µSv to one of the feet and 75 (13,000) µSv to one of the hands. A weak correlation between fluoroscopy time or DAP and the mean TLD dose was observed. Generally, the doses were within an acceptable range from a radiation hygiene point of view. However, relatively high exposures were measured to the hand in some cases and could cause a partial-body dose above the annual dose limit of 500 mSv. Thus, the use of finger dosimeters is strongly recommended.

Keywords

Radiation exposure Partial-body dose Personnel Interventional procedure Multicentre 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank all the physicians and assistants of the participating hospitals for their support and patience during this study.

References

  1. 1.
    Felmlee JP, McGough PF, Morin RL, Classic KL (1991) Hand dose measurements in interventional radiology. Health Phys 60(2):265–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pecher G, Koenig H, Pecher S, Gosch D, Voigt P, Schulz HG (1998) Reduction of radiation exposure for patient and investigator in interventional radiography. Rofo 169(5):505–509. (in German)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Vañó E, González L, Guibelalde E, Fernández JM, Ten JI (1998) Radiation exposure to medical staff in interventional and cardiac radiology. Br J Radiol 71(849):954–960PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Servomaa A, Karppinen J (2001) The dose-area product and assessment of the occupational dose in interventional radiology. Radiat Prot Dosimetry 96(1–3):235–236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Delichas M, Psarrakos K, Molyvda-Athanassopoulou E, Giannoglou G, Sioundas A, Hatziioannou K, Papanastassiou E (2003) Radiation exposure to cardiologists performing interventional cardiology procedures. Eur J Radiol 48(3):268–273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Whitby M, Martin CJ (2003) Radiation doses to the legs of radiologists performing interventional procedures: are they a cause for concern? Br J Radiol 76(905):321–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Duggan L, Hood C, Warren-Forward H, Haque M, Kron T (2004) Variations in dose response with x-ray energy of LiF:Mg,Cu,P thermoluminescence dosimeters: implications for clinical dosimetry. Phys Med Biol 49(17):3831–3845PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Whitby M, Martin CJ (2005) A study of the distribution of dose across the hands of interventional radiologists and cardiologists. Br J Radiol 78(927):219–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hidajat N, Wust P, Kreuschner M, Felix R, Schröder RJ (2006) Radiation risks for the radiologist performing transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). Br J Radiol 79(942):483–486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shortt CP, Al-Hashimi H, Malone L, Lee MJ (2007) Staff radiation doses to the lower extremities in interventional radiology. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 30(6):1206–1209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Oonsiri S, Jumpangern C, Sanghangthum T, Krisanachinda A, Suriyapee S (2007) Radiation dose to medical staff in interventional radiology. J Med Assoc Thai 90(4):823–828PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    von Boetticher H, Lachmund J, Hoffmann W (2007) How conservative is routine personal dosimetry monitoring in diagnostic radiology? Rofo 179(7):728–732, (in German)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Siiskonen T, Tapiovaara M, Kosunen A, Lehtinen M, Vartiainen E (2007) Monte Carlo simulations of occupational radiation doses in interventional radiology. Br J Radiol 80(954):460–468PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kim KP, Miller DL, Balter S, Kleinerman RA, Linet MS, Kwon D, Simon SL (2008) Occupational radiation doses to operators performing cardiac catheterization procedures. Health Phys 94(3):211–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Clerinx P, Buls N, Bosmans H, de Mey J (2008) Double-dosimetry algorithm for workers in interventional radiology. Radiat Prot Dosimetry 129(1–3):321–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Padovani R, Vano E, Trianni A, Bokou C, Bosmans H, Bor D, Jankowski J, Torbica P, Kepler K, Dowling A, Milu C, Tsapaki V, Salat D, Vassileva J, Faulkner K (2008) Reference levels at European level for cardiac interventional procedures. Radiat Prot Dosimetry 129(1–3):104–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    von Boetticher H, Lachmund J, Hoffmann W (2008) Effective dose estimation in diagnostic radiology with two dosimeters: impact of the 2007 recommendations of the ICRP. Health Phys 95(3):337–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Vañó E, Gonzalez L, Fernández JM, Haskal ZJ (2008) Eye lens exposure to radiation in interventional suites: caution is warranted. Radiology 248(3):945–953PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Interventionelle Radiologie – Empfehlung der Strahlenschutzkommission (1997) Berichte der Strahlenschutzkommission des Bundesministeriums für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit. Volume 9, chapt 2, p 2Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    International Commission on Radiological Protection (2001) Publication 85: avoidance of radiation injuries from medical interventional procedures. Pergamon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    ISO 4037-1 (1997) X and gamma reference radiation for calibrating dosemeters and dose rate meters and for determining their response as a function of photon energy—part 1: radiation characteristics and production methodsGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    International Commission on Radiological Protection (2008) Publication 103: recommendations of the ICRP. Ann ICRP 37:2–4Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Eder H, Panzer W, Schöfer H (2005) Is the lead-equivalent suited for rating protection properties of lead-free radiation protective clothing? Rofo 177(3):399–404. (in German)PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© European Society of Radiology 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medical and Occupational Radiation ProtectionFederal Office for Radiation ProtectionBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste SafetyInternational Atomic Energy AgencyViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations