European Radiology

, Volume 18, Issue 1, pp 87–102 | Cite as

Highly accelerated cardiovascular MR imaging using many channel technology: concepts and clinical applications

  • Thoralf Niendorf
  • Daniel K. Sodickson


Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CVMRI) is of proven clinical value in the non-invasive imaging of cardiovascular diseases. CVMRI requires rapid image acquisition, but acquisition speed is fundamentally limited in conventional MRI. Parallel imaging provides a means for increasing acquisition speed and efficiency. However, signal-to-noise (SNR) limitations and the limited number of receiver channels available on most MR systems have in the past imposed practical constraints, which dictated the use of moderate accelerations in CVMRI. High levels of acceleration, which were unattainable previously, have become possible with many-receiver MR systems and many-element, cardiac-optimized RF-coil arrays. The resulting imaging speed improvements can be exploited in a number of ways, ranging from enhancement of spatial and temporal resolution to efficient whole heart coverage to streamlining of CVMRI work flow. In this review, examples of these strategies are provided, following an outline of the fundamentals of the highly accelerated imaging approaches employed in CVMRI. Topics discussed include basic principles of parallel imaging; key requirements for MR systems and RF-coil design; practical considerations of SNR management, supported by multi-dimensional accelerations, 3D noise averaging and high field imaging; highly accelerated clinical state-of-the art cardiovascular imaging applications spanning the range from SNR-rich to SNR-limited; and current trends and future directions.


Cardiovascular MRI Parallel imaging Phased array technology Many-element coil arrays High field imaging 



The authors gratefully acknowledge Marcus Katoh, Gabi Krombach, Harald Kuehl, Karl Ruhl, Elmar Spuentrup, Maral Tilbian, and Jane F. Utting (RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany); Christoph Leussler, (Philips Research Lab, Hamburg, Germany); Ruud de Boer and Marc Kouwenhoven (Philips Medical Systems, Best, The Netherlands); Randy O. Giaquinto and Christopher J. Hardy (GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York, USA); James Akao, Randy Duensing, and Diana Spencer (IN VIVO Corp., Gainsville, Fl, USA); Bernd Kühn (Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany), Sebastian Kozerke (Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University and ETH Zurich, and Gyrotools, Zurich, Switzerland), Bernd J. Wintersperger (University of Munich Hospitals, Munich, Germany); Thea Marie Niendorf and Anna Tabea Niendorf, all of whom kindly contributed technical support or other valuable assistance. Portions of the presented work were supported by a grant from the START programme (46/06 RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Diagnostic RadiologyRWTH Aachen, University HospitalAachenGermany
  2. 2.Department of Radiology, Center for Biomedical ImagingNew York University School of MedicineNew YorkUSA

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