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European Radiology

, Volume 15, Issue 7, pp 1329–1343 | Cite as

Imaging the vertebral artery

  • Keng Yeow Tay
  • Jean Marie U-King-Im
  • Rikin A. Trivedi
  • Nicholas J. Higgins
  • Justin J. Cross
  • John R. Davies
  • Peter L. Weissberg
  • Nagui M. Antoun
  • Jonathan H. GillardEmail author
Neuro

Abstract

Although conventional intraarterial digital subtraction angiography remains the gold standard method for imaging the vertebral artery, noninvasive modalities such as ultrasound, multislice computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography are constantly improving and are playing an increasingly important role in diagnosing vertebral artery pathology in clinical practice. This paper reviews the current state of vertebral artery imaging from an evidence-based perspective. Normal anatomy, normal variants and a number of pathological entities such as vertebral atherosclerosis, arterial dissection, arteriovenous fistula, subclavian steal syndrome and vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia are discussed.

Keywords

Vertebral artery Angiography Magnetic angiography Computed tomographic angiography Ultrasound 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to Philip Elliot and Rosemary Farmer from Addenbrooke’s Hospital for providing some of the images in this review. We also thank the British Heart Foundation for supporting the FDG-PET studies.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Keng Yeow Tay
    • 1
  • Jean Marie U-King-Im
    • 1
  • Rikin A. Trivedi
    • 1
  • Nicholas J. Higgins
    • 1
  • Justin J. Cross
    • 1
  • John R. Davies
    • 2
  • Peter L. Weissberg
    • 2
  • Nagui M. Antoun
    • 1
  • Jonathan H. Gillard
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyAddenbrooke’s Hospital and University of CambridgeCambridgeUK
  2. 2.Division of Cardiovascular MedicineAddenbrooke’s Hospital and University of CambridgeCambridgeUK
  3. 3.University Department of RadiologyAddenbrooke’s HospitaldCambridgeUK

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