European Radiology

, Volume 15, Issue 4, pp 772–783 | Cite as

A comparative evaluation of a RARE-based single-shot pulse sequence for diffusion-weighted MRI of musculoskeletal soft-tissue tumors

  • Olaf Dietrich
  • José G. Raya
  • Julia Sommer
  • Michael Deimling
  • Maximilian F. Reiser
  • Andrea Baur-Melnyk


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a centric-reordered modified rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (mRARE) sequence for single-shot diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) of soft-tissue tumors in the musculoskeletal system. In the evaluation of this sequence, DWI was performed in a liquid phantom, in excised human tumor samples embedded in bovine muscle, and in nine patients suffering from different types of soft-tissue tumors. The measurements were compared to DWI using a spin-echo sequence and a single-shot echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence. The phantom measurements in water and dimethyl sulfoxide showed a difference of less than 5% when comparing the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) determined by the mRARE sequence and the two other techniques. Comparing mRARE and EPI, the differences in the ADCs were about 10% in the excised tumor tissue and, typically, about 15% in vivo. ADCs between 0.8×10−3 mm2/s and 1.4×10−3 mm2/s, depending on the tumor type, were found in solid tumor tissue; in cystic tumor areas, ADCs greater than 2.0×10−3 mm2/s were determined with the mRARE and the EPI sequences. Diffusion-weighted images of the mRARE sequence were less distorted than those acquired with the single-shot EPI sequence, and provided more anatomic information, since the muscle and fat signals were considerably higher.


Magnetic resonance (MR), diffusion study Magnetic resonance (MR), tissue characterization Neoplasms, MR Sarcoma 



This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), grant nos. BA 2089/1-1 and BA 2089/1-3.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Olaf Dietrich
    • 1
  • José G. Raya
    • 1
  • Julia Sommer
    • 1
  • Michael Deimling
    • 2
  • Maximilian F. Reiser
    • 1
  • Andrea Baur-Melnyk
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Clinical Radiology—GroßhadernLudwig Maximilian University of MunichMunichGermany
  2. 2.Siemens Medical SolutionsErlangenGermany

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