Advertisement

European Radiology

, Volume 15, Issue 4, pp 772–783 | Cite as

A comparative evaluation of a RARE-based single-shot pulse sequence for diffusion-weighted MRI of musculoskeletal soft-tissue tumors

  • Olaf Dietrich
  • José G. Raya
  • Julia Sommer
  • Michael Deimling
  • Maximilian F. Reiser
  • Andrea Baur-Melnyk
Musculoskeletal

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a centric-reordered modified rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (mRARE) sequence for single-shot diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) of soft-tissue tumors in the musculoskeletal system. In the evaluation of this sequence, DWI was performed in a liquid phantom, in excised human tumor samples embedded in bovine muscle, and in nine patients suffering from different types of soft-tissue tumors. The measurements were compared to DWI using a spin-echo sequence and a single-shot echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence. The phantom measurements in water and dimethyl sulfoxide showed a difference of less than 5% when comparing the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) determined by the mRARE sequence and the two other techniques. Comparing mRARE and EPI, the differences in the ADCs were about 10% in the excised tumor tissue and, typically, about 15% in vivo. ADCs between 0.8×10−3 mm2/s and 1.4×10−3 mm2/s, depending on the tumor type, were found in solid tumor tissue; in cystic tumor areas, ADCs greater than 2.0×10−3 mm2/s were determined with the mRARE and the EPI sequences. Diffusion-weighted images of the mRARE sequence were less distorted than those acquired with the single-shot EPI sequence, and provided more anatomic information, since the muscle and fat signals were considerably higher.

Keywords

Magnetic resonance (MR), diffusion study Magnetic resonance (MR), tissue characterization Neoplasms, MR Sarcoma 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), grant nos. BA 2089/1-1 and BA 2089/1-3.

References

  1. 1.
    Moseley ME, Cohen Y, Mintorovitch J, Chileuitt L, Shimizu H, Kucharczyk J, Wendland MF, Weinstein PR (1990) Early detection of regional cerebral ischemia in cats: comparison of diffusion- and T2-weighted MRI and spectroscopy. Magn Reson Med 14:330–346Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chien D, Kwong KK, Gress DR, Buonanno FS, Buxton RB, Rosen BR (1992) MR diffusion imaging of cerebral infarction in humans. Am J Neuroradiol 13:1097–1102Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Huisman TA (2003) Diffusion-weighted imaging: basic concepts and application in cerebral stroke and head trauma. Eur Radiol 13:2283–2297CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Douek P, Turner R, Pekar J, Patronas N, Le Bihan D (1991) MR color mapping of myelin fiber orientation. J Comput Assist Tomogr 15:923–929Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pierpaoli C, Jezzard P, Basser PJ, Barnett A, Di Chiro G (1996) Diffusion tensor MR imaging of the human brain. Radiology 201:637–648PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jones DK, Williams SC, Gasston D, Horsfield MA, Simmons A, Howard R (2002) Isotropic resolution diffusion tensor imaging with whole brain acquisition in a clinically acceptable time. Hum Brain Mapp 15:216–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tievsky AL, Ptak T, Farkas J (1999) Investigation of apparent diffusion coefficient and diffusion tensor anisotropy in acute and chronic multiple sclerosis lesions. Am J Neuroradiol 20:1491–1499Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Werring DJ, Clark CA, Barker GJ, Thompson AJ, Miller DH (1999) Diffusion tensor imaging of lesions and normal-appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis. Neurology 52:1626–1632Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kim YJ, Chang KH, Song IC, Kim HD, Seong SO, Kim YH, Han MH (1998) Brain abscess and necrotic or cystic brain tumor: discrimination with signal intensity on diffusion-weighted MR imaging. Am J Roentgenol 171:1487–1490Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sugahara T, Korogi Y, Kochi M, Ikushima I, Shigematu Y, Hirai T, Okuda T, Liang L, Ge Y, Komohara Y, Ushio Y, Takahashi M (1999) Usefulness of diffusion-weighted MRI with echo-planar technique in the evaluation of cellularity in gliomas. J Magn Reson Imaging 9:53–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Taouli B, Vilgrain V, Dumont E, Daire JL, Fan B, Menu Y (2003) Evaluation of liver diffusion isotropy and characterization of focal hepatic lesions with two single-shot echo-planar MR imaging sequences: prospective study in 66 patients. Radiology 226:71–78Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ries M, Jones RA, Basseau F, Moonen CT, Grenier N (2001) Diffusion tensor MRI of the human kidney. J Magn Reson Imaging 14:42–49CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cova M, Squillaci E, Stacul F, Manenti G, Gava S, Simonetti G, Pozzi-Mucelli R (2004) Diffusion-weighted MRI in the evaluation of renal lesions: preliminary results. Br J Radiol 77:851–857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Moteki T, Ishizaka H (1999) Evaluation of cystic ovarian lesions using apparent diffusion coefficient calculated from reordered turboflash MR images. Magn Reson Imaging 17:955–963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sinha U, Yao L (2002) In vivo diffusion tensor imaging of human calf muscle. J Magn Reson Imaging 15:87–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nygren AT, Kaijser L (2002) Water exchange induced by unilateral exercise in active and inactive skeletal muscles. J Appl Physiol 93:1716–1722Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Eustace S, DiMasi M, Adams J, Ward R, Caruthers S, McAlindon T (2000) In vitro and in vivo spin echo diffusion imaging characteristics of synovial fluid: potential non-invasive differentiation of inflammatory and degenerative arthritis. Skeletal Radiol 29:320–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dietrich O, Herlihy A, Dannels WR, Fiebach J, Heiland S, Hajnal JV, Sartor K (2001) Diffusion-weighted imaging of the spine using radial k-space trajectories. MAGMA 12:23–31 DOI 10.1016/s1352-8661(00)00132-0Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Baur A, Huber A, Arbogast S, Durr HR, Zysk S, Wendtner C, Deimling M, Reiser M (2001) Diffusion-weighted imaging of tumor recurrences and posttherapeutical soft-tissue changes in humans. Eur Radiol 11:828–833CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wang J, Takashima S, Takayama F, Kawakami S, Saito A, Matsushita T, Momose M, Ishiyama T (2001) Head and neck lesions: characterization with diffusion-weighted echo-planar MR imaging. Radiology 220:621–630Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    van Rijswijk CS, Kunz P, Hogendoorn PC, Taminiau AH, Doornbos J, Bloem JL (2002) Diffusion-weighted MRI in the characterization of soft-tissue tumors. J Magn Reson Imaging 15:302–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Einarsdóttir H, Karlsson M, Wejde J, Bauer HC (2004) Diffusion-weighted MRI of soft tissue tumours. Eur Radiol 14:959–963CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Baur A, Stabler A, Bruning R, Bartl R, Krodel A, Reiser M, Deimling M (1998) Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of bone marrow: differentiation of benign versus pathologic compression fractures. Radiology 207:349–356Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Nonomura Y, Yasumoto M, Yoshimura R, Haraguchi K, Ito S, Akashi T, Ohashi I (2001) Relationship between bone marrow cellularity and apparent diffusion coefficient. J Magn Reson Imaging 13:757–760Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zhou XJ, Leeds NE, McKinnon GC, Kumar AJ (2002) Characterization of benign and metastatic vertebral compression fractures with quantitative diffusion MR imaging. Am J Neuroradiol 23:165–170Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Park SW, Lee JH, Ehara S, Park YB, Sung SO, Choi JA, Joo YE (2004) Single shot fast spin echo diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the spine; is it useful in differentiating malignant metastatic tumor infiltration from benign fracture edema? Clin Imaging 28:102–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bammer R, Herneth AM, Maier SE, Butts K, Prokesch RW, Do HM, Atlas SW, Moseley ME (2003) Line scan diffusion imaging of the spine. Am J Neuroradiol 24:5–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Baur A, Dietrich O, Reiser M (2003) Diffusion-weighted imaging of bone marrow: current status. Eur Radiol 13:1699–1708Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lang P, Wendland MF, Saeed M, Gindele A, Rosenau W, Mathur A, Gooding CA, Genant HK (1998) Osteogenic sarcoma: noninvasive in vivo assessment of tumor necrosis with diffusion-weighted MR imaging. Radiology 206:227–235Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Stejskal EO, Tanner JE (1965) Spin diffusion measurements: spin echoes in the presence of a time-dependent field gradient. J Chem Phys 42:288–292Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hennig J, Nauerth A, Friedburg H (1986) RARE imaging: a fast imaging method for clinical MR. Magn Reson Med 3:823–833Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Norris DG (1991) Ultrafast low-angle RARE: U-FLARE. Magn Reson Med 17:539–542Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Norris DG, Bornert P, Reese T, Leibfritz D (1992) On the application of ultra-fast RARE experiments. Magn Reson Med 27:142–164Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Reese TG, Heid O, Weisskoff RM, Wedeen VJ (2003) Reduction of eddy-current-induced distortion in diffusion MRI using a twice-refocused spin echo. Magn Reson Med 49:177–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Firbank MJ, Coulthard A, Harrison RM, Williams ED (1999) A comparison of two methods for measuring the signal to noise ratio on MR images. Phys Med Biol 44:N261–N264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bonny JM, Renou JP (2002) Water diffusion features as indicators of muscle structure ex vivo. Magn Reson Imaging 20:395–400CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bastin ME, Armitage PA, Marshall I (1998) A theoretical study of the effect of experimental noise on the measurement of anisotropy in diffusion imaging. Magn Reson Imaging 16:773–785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Jones DK, Horsfield MA, Simmons A (1999) Optimal strategies for measuring diffusion in anisotropic systems by magnetic resonance imaging. Magn Reson Med 42:515–525CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Le Bihan D, Breton E, Lallemand D, Grenier P, Cabanis E, Laval-Jeantet M (1986) MR imaging of intravoxel incoherent motions: application to diffusion and perfusion in neurologic disorders. Radiology 161:401–407PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dietrich O, Nikolaou K, Wintersperger BJ, Flatz W, Nittka M, Petsch R, Kiefer B, Schoenberg SO (2002) iPAT: applications for fast and cardiovascular MR imaging. Electromedica 70:133–146Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Heidemann RM, Ozsarlak O, Parizel PM, Michiels J, Kiefer B, Jellus V, Muller M, Breuer F, Blaimer M, Griswold MA, Jakob PM (2003) A brief review of parallel magnetic resonance imaging. Eur Radiol 13:2323–2337CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gudbjartsson H, Maier SE, Mulkern RV, Morocz IA, Patz S, Jolesz FA (1996) Line scan diffusion imaging. Magn Reson Med 36:509–519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Pipe JG, Farthing VG, Forbes KP (2002) Multishot diffusion-weighted FSE using PROPELLER MRI. Magn Reson Med 47:42–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Olaf Dietrich
    • 1
  • José G. Raya
    • 1
  • Julia Sommer
    • 1
  • Michael Deimling
    • 2
  • Maximilian F. Reiser
    • 1
  • Andrea Baur-Melnyk
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Clinical Radiology—GroßhadernLudwig Maximilian University of MunichMunichGermany
  2. 2.Siemens Medical SolutionsErlangenGermany

Personalised recommendations