Advertisement

European Radiology

, Volume 15, Issue 3, pp 599–607 | Cite as

Spinal infections

  • E. Turgut TaliEmail author
  • Serap Gültekin
Neuro

Abstract

Spinal infections have an increasing prevalence among the general population. Definitive diagnosis based solely on clinical grounds is usually not possible and radiological imaging is used in almost all patients. The primary aim of the authors is to present an overview of spinal infections located in epidural, intradural and intramedullary compartments and to provide diagnostic clues regarding different imaging modalities, particularly MRI, to the practicing physicians and radiologists.

Keywords

Spinal epidural infections Spinal leptomeningitis Myelitis Arachnoiditis Imaging 

References

  1. 1.
    Mellado JM, Perez Del Palomar L, Camins A, Salvado E, Ramos A, Sauri A (2004) MR imaging of spinal infection: atypical features, interpretative pitfalls and potential mimickers. Eur Radiol 14:1980–1989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baleriaux DL, Neugroschl C (2004) Spinal and spinal cord infection. Eur Radiol 14:E72–E83Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Smith AS, Blaser SI (1991) Infectious and inflammatory processes of the spine. Radiol Clin North Am 29:809–827Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Van Tassel P (1994) Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal infections. Top Magn Reson Imaging 6:69–81Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mendonca RA (2002) Spinal infection and inflammatory disorders. In: Atlas SW (ed) Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spine, 3rd edn. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, pp 1854–1969Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tang HJ, Lin HJ, Liu YC, Li CM (2002) Spinal epidural abscess—experience with 46 patients and evaluation of prognostic factors. J Infect 45:76–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    MJ Post, RM Quencer, BM Montalvo, BH Katz, FJ Eismont, BA Green (1988) Spinal infection: evaluation with MR imaging and intraoperative US. Radiology 169:765–771Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hitchon PW, Osenbach RK, Yuh WT, Menezes AH (1992) Spinal infections. Clin Neurosurg 38:373–387Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jevtic V (2004) Vertebral infection. Eur Radiol 14:E43–E52Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dagirmanjian A, Schils J, McHenry MC (1999) MR Imaging of spinal infections. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am 7:525–538Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tyrrell PN, Cassar-Pullicino VN, McCall IW (1999) Spinal infection. Eur Radiol 9:1066–1077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bernaerts A, Vanhoenacker FM, Parizel PM, Van Goethem JW, Van Altena R, Laridon A, De Roeck J, Coeman V, De Schepper AM (2003) Tuberculosis of the central nervous system: overview of the neuroradiological findings. Eur Radiol 13:1876–1890CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sharif HS, Morgan JL, al Shahed MS, al Thagafi MY (1995) Role of CT and MR imaging in the management of tuberculous spondylitis. Radiol Clin North Am 33:787–804Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ozerbil OM, Ural O, Topatan HI, Erongun U (1997) Lumbar spinal nerve root compression caused by brucella granuloma. Spine 23:491–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ozates M, Ozkan U, Bukte Y, Ceviz A, Sari I, Simsek M (1999) Lumbar epidural brucellar abscess causing nerve root compression. Spinal Cord 37:448–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Coskun E, Suzer T, Yalcin N, Tahta K (1998) Spinal extradural compression caused by granuloma of brucellosis. Scand J Infect Dis 30:311–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Stabler A, Reiser MF (2001) Imaging of spinal infection. Radiol Clin North Am 39:115–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gupta RK, Chang KH (2001) Parasitic infections. In: Gupta RK, Lufkin RB (eds) MR imaging and spectroscopy of central nervous system infection, 1st edn. Kluwer Academic, New York, pp 205–239Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sharif HS (1992) Role of MR imaging in the management of spinal infections. Am J Roentgenol 158:1333–1345Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gero B, Sze G, Sharif H (1991) MR imaging of intradural inflammatory diseases of the spine. Am J Neuroradiol 12:1009–1019Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rothman SL (1996) The diagnosis of infections of the spine by modern imaging techniques. Orthop Clin North Am 27:15–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chang KH, Han MH, Choi YW, Kim IO, Han MC, Kim CW (1989) Tuberculous arachnoiditis of the spine: findings of the myelography, CT and MR imaging. Am J Neuroradiol 10:1255–1262Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mousa AM, Bahar RH, Araj GF, Koshy TS, Muhtaseb SA, al-Mudallal DS, Marafie AA (1990) Radiological complications of brucella spondylitis. Acta Neurol Scand 81:16–23Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Leite CC, Jinkins JR, Escobar BE, Magalhaes AC, Gomes GC, Dib G, Vargas SA, Zee C, Watanabe AT (1997) MR imaging of intramedullary and intradural-extramedullary spinal cysticercosis. Am J Roentgenol 169:1713–1717Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    D’Angelo CM, Whisler W (1978) Bacterial infections of the spinal cord and its coverings. In: Vinken PJ, Bruyn GW (eds) Handbook of clinical neurology, vol. 33. North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp 195–262Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Simon JK, Lazareff JA, Diament MJ, Kennedy WA (2003) Intramedullary abscess of the spinal cord in children: a case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Infect Dis J 22:186–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Durmaz R, Atasoy MA, Durmaz G, Adapinar B, Arslantas A, Aydinli A, Tel E (2001) Multiple nocardial abscesses of cerebrum, cerebellum and spinal cord, causing quadriplegia. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 103:59–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cosan TE, Kabukcuoglu S, Arslantas A, Atasoy MA, Dogan N, Ozgunes I, Kebabci M, Tel E (2001) Spinal toxoplasmic arachnoiditis associated with osteoid formation. Spine 26:1726–1728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lindner A, Becker G, Warmuth-Metz M, Schalke BC, Bogdahn U, Toyka KV (1995) Magnetic resonance imaging findings of spinal intramedullary abscess caused by Candida albicans: case report. Neurosurgery 36:411–412Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hott JS, Horn E, Sonntag VK, Coons SW, Shetter A (2003) Intramedullary histoplasmosis spinal cord abscess in a nonendemic region: case report and review the literature. J Spinal Disord Tech 16:212–215Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Radiology, Division of NeuroradiologyGazi University School of MedicineAnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations