Advertisement

European Radiology

, Volume 15, Issue 4, pp 727–741 | Cite as

Imaging of macrophage-related lung diseases

  • Katharina Marten
  • David M. HansellEmail author
Chest

Abstract

Macrophage-related pulmonary diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by macrophage accumulation, activation or dysfunction. These conditions include smoking-related interstitial lung diseases, metabolic disorders such as Niemann–Pick or Gaucher disease, and rare primary lung tumors. High-resolution computed tomography abnormalities include pulmonary ground-glass opacification secondary to infiltration by macrophages, centrilobular nodules or interlobular septal thickening reflecting peribronchiolar or septal macrophage accumulation, respectively, emphysema caused by macrophage dysfunction, and honeycombing following macrophage-related lung matrix remodeling.

Keywords

Computed tomography Smoking Lung Lung neoplasms 

References

  1. 1.
    Laskin DL, Weinberger B, Laskin JD (2001) Functional heterogeneity in liver and lung macrophages. J Leukoc Biol 70:163–170Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lehnert BE (1992) Pulmonary and thoracic macrophage subpopulations and clearance of particles from the lung. Environ Health Perspect 97:17–46Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fels AOS, Cohn ZA (1986) The alveolar macrophage. J Appl Physiol 60:353–369Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Harris JO, Swenson EW, Johnson JE (1970) Human alveolar macrophages: comparison of phagocytic ability, glucose utilization, and ultrastructure in smokers and non-smokers. J Clin Invest 69:2086–2096Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Daniele RP, Dauber JH, Altose MD, Rowlands DT, Gorenberg DJ (1977) Lymphocyte studies in asymptomatic cigarette smokers: a comparison between lung and peripheral blood. Am Rev Respir Dis 116:997–1005Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhang P, Summer WR, Bagby GJ, Nelson S (2000) Innate immunity and pulmonary host defense. Immunol Rev 173:39–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sibille Y, Reynolds HY (1990) Macrophages and polymorphonuclear neutrophils in lung defense and injury. Am Rev Respir Dis 141:471–501Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brain JD (1992) Mechanisms, measurement, and significance of lung macrophage function. Environ Health Perspect 97:5–10Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lacraz S, Nicod L, Galve-de Rochemonteix B, Baumberger C, Dayer JM, Welgus HG (1992) Suppression of metalloproteinase biosynthesis in human alveolar macrophages by interleukin-4. J Clin Invest 90:382–388Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nicod L (1999) Pulmonary defence mechanisms. Respiration 66:2–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Crowell RE, Heaphy E, Valdez YE., Mold C, Lehnert BE (1992) Alveolar and interstitial macrophage populations in the murine lung. Exp Lung Res 18:435–446Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Blas van Oud Alblas A, Van Furth R (1982) The origin of pulmonary macrophages. Immunobiology 161:186–192Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Holt PG, Warner LA, Papadimitriou JM (1982) Alveolar macrophages: functional heterogeneity within macrophage populations from rat lung. Aust J Exp Biol Med Sci 60:607–618Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Johansson A, Lundborg M, Skold CM, Lundahl J, Tornling G, Eklund A, Camner P (1997) Functional, morphological, and phenotypical differences between rat alveolar and interstitial macrophages. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 16:582–588Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Calhoun WJ, Salisbury SM (1989) Heterogeneity in cell recovery and superoxide production in buoyant, density-defined subpopulations of human alveolar macrophages from healthy volunteers and sarcoidosis patients. J Lab Clin Med 114:682–690Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chandler DB, Bayles G, Fuller WC (1988) Prostaglandin synthesis and release by subpopulations of rat interstitial macrophages. Am Rev Respir Dis 138:901–907Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chandler DB, Brannen AL (1990) Interstitial macrophage subpopulations: responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. Tissue Cell 22:427–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Liebow AA, Steer A, Billingley JG (1965) Desquamative interstitial pneumonia. Am J Med 38:369–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (2002) International multidisciplinary consensus classification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 165:277–304Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Farr GH, Harley RA, Hennigan GR (1970) Desquamative interstitial pneumonia: an electron microscopic study. Am J Pathol 60:347–370Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yousem SA, Colby TV, Gaensler EA (1989) Respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease and its relationship to desquamative interstitial pneumonia. Mayo Clin Proc 64:1373–1380Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Desai SR, Ryan SM, Colby TV (2003) Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: histopathological and imaging perspectives. Clin Radiol 58:259–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Carrington CB, Gaensler EA, Coutu RE, Fitzgerald MX, Gupta RG (1978) Natural history and treated course of usual and desquamative interstitial pneumonia. N Engl J Med 298:801–809Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Stillwell PC, Norris DG, O’Connell EJ et al. (1980) Desquamative interstitial pneumonitis in children. Chest 77:165–171Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rawbone RG, Shaw MT, Jackson JG, Bagshawe KD (1971) Complications of methotrexate-maintained remission in lymphoblastic leukemia. Br Med J 4:24–31Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lougheed MD, Roos JO, Waddell WR, Munt PW (1995) Desquamative interstitial pneumonitis and diffuse alveolar damage in textile workers: potential role of mycotoxins. Chest 108:1196–1200Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Goldstein JD, Godleski JJ, Herman PG (1982) Desquamative interstitial pneumonitis associated with monomyelocytic leukemia. Chest 81:321–325Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bone RC, Wolfe J, Sobonya RE et al. (1982) Desquamative interstitial pneumonia following chronic nitrofurantoin therapy. Chest 82:321–325Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Abraham JL, Hertzberg MA (1981) Inorganic particulates associated with desquamative interstitial pneumonia. Chest 80:67–70Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bokulic RE, Hilman BC (1994) Interstitial lung disease in children. Pediatr Clin N Am 41:543–567Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Akira M, Yamamoto S, Hara H, Sakatani M, Ueda B (1997) Serial computed tomographic evaluation in desquamative interstitial pneumonia. Thorax 52:333–337Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hartman TE, Primack SL, Kang EY, Swensen SJ, Hansell DM, McGuinness G, Müller NL (1996) Disease progression in usual interstitial pneumonia compared with desquamative interstitial pneumonia. Chest 110:378–382Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Barberis M, Mazari S, Tironi A, Lampertico P (1992) Recurrence of primary disease in a single lung transplant recipient. Trans Proc 24:2660–2662Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lipworth B, Woodcock A, Addis B, Turner-Warwick M (1987) Late relapse of desquamative interstitial pneumonia. Am Rev Respir Dis 136:1253–1255Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Verleden GM, Sels F, Van Raemdonck D, Verbeken EK, Demedts M (1998) Possible recurrence of desquamative interstitial pneumonitis in a single lung transplant recipient. Eur Respir J 11:971–974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Heyneman LE, Ward S, Lynch DA, Remy-Jardin M, Johkoh T, Muller NL (1999) Respiratory bronchiolitis, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, and desquamative interstitial pneumonia: different entities or part of the spectrum of the same disease process? Am J Roentgenol 173:1617–1622Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hartman TE, Primack SL, Swensen SJ, Hansell D, McGuiness G, Muller NL (1993) Desquamative interstitial pneumonia: thin-section CT-findings in 22 patients. Radiology 187:787–790Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Copley SJ, Coren M, Nicholson AG, Rubens MB, Bush A, Hansell DM (2000) Diagnostic accuracy of thin-section CT and chest radiography of pediatric interstitial lung disease. Am J Roentgenol 174:549–554Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chapman HA (2004) Disorders of lung matrix remodeling. J Clin Invest 113:148–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Niewoehner D, Klinerman J, Rice D (1974) Pathologic changes in the peripheral airways of young cigarette smokers. N Engl J Med 291:755–758Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ryu JH, Colby TV, Hartman TE, Vassallo R (2001) Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: a concise review. Eur Respir J 17:122–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Myers JL, Veal CF, Shin MS, Katzenstein AA (1987) Respiratory bronchiolitis causing interstitial lung disease: a clinicopathologic study of six cases. Am Rev Respir Dis 135:880–884Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Costabel U, Guzman J (1992) Effect of smoking on bronchoalveolar lavage constituents. Eur Respir J 5:776–779Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hunninghake GW, Crystal RG (1983) Cigarette smoking and lung destruction: accumulation of neutrophils in the lungs of cigarette smokers. Am Rev Respir Dis 128:833–838Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Riise GC, Ahlstedt S, Larsson S, Enander I, Jones I, Larsson P, Andersson B (1995) Bronchial inflammation in chronic bronchitis assessed by measurement of cell products in bronchial lavage fluid. Thorax 50:360–365Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Colby TV (1998) Bronchiolitis: pathologic considerations. Am J Clin Pathol 109:101–109Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Katzenstein AA, Myers JL (1998) Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: clinical relevance of pathologic classification. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 157:1301–1315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Moon J, du Bois RM, Colby TV, Hansell DM, Nicholson AG (1999) Clinical significance of respiratory bronchiolitis on open lung biopsy and its relationship to smoking related interstitial lung disease. Thorax 54:1009–1014Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Carilli AD, Kotzen LM, Fischer MJ (1973) The chest roentgenogram in smoking females. Am Rev Respir Dis 107:133–136Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Remy-Jardin M, Remy J, Boulenguez C, Soubaszek A, Edme JL, Furon D (1993) Morphologic effects of cigarette smoking on airways and pulmonary parenchyma in healthy adult volunteers: CT evaluation and correlation with pulmonary function tests. Radiology 93:107–115Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Park J, Tuder R, Brown KK, Hale VA, Lynch DA (1998) Respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease: CT-pathologic correlation. Radiology 209:179Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Remy-Jardin M, Edme J, Boulenguez C, Remy J, Mastora I, Sobaszek A (2002) Longitudinal follow-up study of smoker’s lung with thin-section CT in correlation with pulmonary function tests. Radiology 222:261–270Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Janoff A (1985) Elastases and emphysema current assessment of the protease-antiprotease hypothesis. Am Rev Respir Dis 132:417–433Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Shapiro SD, Goldstein NM, McGarry Houghton A, Dobayashi DK, Delley D, Belaaouaj A (2003) Neutrophil elastase contributes to cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in mice. Am J Pathol 163:2329–2335Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Eidelman D, Saeta MP, Ghezzo H, Wang NS, Hodal JR, King M, Cosio MG (1990) Cellularity of the alveolar walls in smokers and its relation to lung destruction: functional implications. Am Rev Respir Dis 141:1547–1552Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hautamaki RD, Kobayashi DK, Senior RM, Shapiro SD (1997) Macrophage elastase is required for cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in mice. Science 277:2002–2004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Cline MJ (1994) Histiocytes and histiocytosis. Blood 84:2840–2853PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Favara BE (1997) Contemporary classification of histiocytic disorders. Med Pediatr Oncol 29:157–166CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Travis WD, Borok Z, Roum JH et al (1993) Pulmonary Langerhans cell granulomatosis (histiocytosis X): a clinicopathologic study of 48 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 17:971–986Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Soler P, Kambouchner M, Valeyre D, Hance AJ (1992) Pulmonary Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis (histiocytosis X). Am Rev Med 43:105–115Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Vassallo R, Ryu JH, Colby TV, Hartman T, Limper AH (2000) Pulmonary Langerhans’-cell histiocytosis. N Engl J Med 342:1969–1978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Tazi A, Soler P, Hance AJ (2000) Adult pulmonary Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis. Thorax 55:405–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Smets A, Mortele K, de Praeter G, Francois O, Benoit Y, Kunnen M (1997) Pulmonary and mediastinal lesions in children with Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Pediatr Radiol 27:873–876Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Yousem SA, Colby TV, Weiss LM (2001) Pulmonary Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis: molecular analysis of clonality. Am J Surg Pathol 25:630–636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Brown RE (2000) Pulmonary Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis. N Engl J Med 343:1654–1656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Colby TV, Carrington CB (1995) Interstitial lung disease. In: Thurlbeck WM, Churg AM (eds) Pathology of the lung. Thieme Medical Publishers, New York, pp 589–737Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Colby TV, Lombard C (1983) Histiocytosis X in the lung. Human Pathol 14:847–856Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kambouchner M, Basset F, Soler P (1996) Tridimensional features of pulmonary Langerhans cell granulomatosis (PLCG) lesions. Mod Path 9:157–162Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Friedman PJ, Liebow AA, Sokoloff J (1981) Eosinophilic granuloma of lung: clinical aspects of primary pulmonary histiocytosis in the adult. Medicine 60:385–396Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Mogulkuc N, Veral A, Bishop PW, Bayindir U, Pickering CAC, Egan JJ (1999) Pulmonary Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis: radiologic resolution following smoking cessation. Chest 115:1452–1455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Von Essen S, West W, Sitorius M, Rennard SI (1990) Complete resolution of roentgenographic changes in a patient with pulmonary histiocytosis X. Chest 98:765–767Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Lacronique J, Roth C, Battesti JP, Basset F, Chretien J (1982) Chest radiological features of pulmonary histiocytosis X: a report based on 50 adult cases. Thorax 37:104–109Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Fichtenbaum CJ, Kleinman GM, Haddad RG (1990) Eosinophilic granuloma of the lung presenting as a solitary pulmonary nodule. Thorax 45:905–906Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Pomeranz SJ, Proto AV (1986) Histiocytosis X: unusual-confusing features of eosinophilic granuloma. Chest 89:88–92Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Tazi A, Montcelly L, Bergeron A, Valeyre D, Battesti JP, Hance AJ (1998) Relapsing nodular lesions in the course of adult pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 157:216–223Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Etienne B, Bertocchi M, Gamondes JP et al. (1998) Relapsing pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis after lung transplantation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 157:288–291Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Brauner MW, Grenier P, Tijani K, Battesti JP, Valeyre D (1997) Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis: evolution of lesions on CT scans. Radiology 204:497–502Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Moore ADA, Godwin JD, Muller NL et al. (1989) Pulmonary histiocytosis X: comparison of radiographic and CT findings. Radiology 172:249–254Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Brauner MW, Grenier P, Mouelhi MM, Mompoint D, Lenoir S (1989) Pulmonary histiocytosis X: evaluation with high-resolution CT. Radiology 172:255–258Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Soler P, Bergeron A, Kambouchner M, Groussard O, Brauner M, Grenier P, Crestani B, Mal H, Tazi A, Battesti JP, Loiseau P, Valeyre D (2000) Is high-resolution computed tomography a reliable tool to predict the histopathological activity of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis? Am J Respir Crit Care Med 162:264–270Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Vassallo R, Jensen EA, Colby TV, Ryu JH, Douglas WW, Hartman TE, Limper AH (2003) The overlap between respiratory bronchiolitis and desquamative interstitial pneumonia in pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Chest 124:1199–1205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Dhami R, He X, Gordon RE, Schuchman EH (2001) Analysis of the lung pathology and alveolar macrophage function in the acid sphingomyelinase-deficient mouse model of Niemann–Pick disease. Lab Invest 81:987–999Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Neufeld EB, Wastney M, Patel S et al (1999) The Niemann–Pick C1 protein resides in a vesicular compartment linked to retrograde transport of multiple lysosomal cargo. J Biol Chem 274:9627–9635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Minai OA, Sullivan EJ, Stoller JK (2000) Pulmonary involvement in Niemann–Pick disease: case report and literature review. Respir Med 94:1241–1251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Crocker AC, Farber S (1985) Niemann–Pick disease: a review of 18 patients. Medicine 37:1–98Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Skikne MI, Prinsloo I, Webster I (1972) Electron microscopy of lung in Niemann–Pick disease. J Pathol 106:119–122Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Terry RD, Sperry WM, Brodoff B (1954) Adult lipidosis resembling Niemann–Pick’s disease. Am J Pathol 30:263–285Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Knox JHM, Wahl WH, Schmeisser HC (1916) Gaucher’s disease. A report of two cases in infants. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp 27:1Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Elleder M, Houstkova H, Zeman J, Ledvinova J, Poupetova H (2001) Pulmonary storage with emphysema as a sign of Niemann–Pick type C2 disease (second complementation group). Report of a case. Virchows Arch 439:206–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Elleder M (1989) Niemann–Pick disease. Pathol Res Pract 185:293–328Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Schuchman EH, Desnick RJ (1995) Niemann–Pick disease types A and B: acid sphingomyelinase deficiencies. In: Scriver CR, Beaudet AL, Sly WS, Valle D (eds) The metabolic and molecular bases of inherited disease, 7th edn. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 2601–2638Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Niggemann B, Rebien W, Rahn W et al (1994) Asymptomatic pulmonary involvement in 2 children with Niemann–Pick disease type B. Respiration 61:55–57Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Ferretti GR, Lantuejoul S, Brambilla E et al. (1996) Pulmonary involvement in Niemann–Pick disease subtype B: a case report with CT findings. J Comput Assist Tomogr 20:990–992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Nicholson AG, Wells AU, Hooper J, Hansell DM, Kelleher A, Morgan C (2002) Successful treatment of endogenous lipoid pneumonia due to Niemann–Pick type B disease with whole-lung lavage. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 165:128–131Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Lever AML, Ryder JB (1983) Cor pulmonale in an adult secondary to Niemann–Pick disease. Thorax 38:873–874Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Rodrigues R, Marchiori E, Müller NL (2004) Niemann Pick disease: high-resolution CT findings in two siblings. J Comput Assist Tomogr 28:52–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Cox TM (2001) Gaucher disease: understanding the molecular pathogenesis of sphingolipidoses. J Inherit Metab Dis 24:106–121Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Roberts W, Frederickson D (1967) Gaucher’s disease of lung causing severe pulmonary hypertension with associated acute recurrent pericarditis. Circulation 35:783–789Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Schneider EL, Epstein CJ, Kaback MJ, Brandes D (1977) Severe pulmonary involvement in adult Gaucher’s disease: report of three cases and review of the literature. Am J Med 63:475–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Miller A, Brown LK, Pastores GM, Desnick RJ (2003) Pulmonary involvement in type 1 Gaucher disease: functional and exercise findings in patients with and without clinical interstitial lung disease. Clin Genet 63:368–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Goitein O, Elstein D, Abrahamov A, Hadas-Halpern I, Melzer E, Kerem E, Zimran A (2001) Lung involvement and enzyme replacement therapy in Gaucher’s disease. Q J Med 94:407–415Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Aydin K, Karabulut N, Demirkazik F, Arat A (1997) Pulmonary involvement in adult Gaucher’s disease: high resolution CT appearance. Br J Radiol 70:93–95Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Lee SYR, Mak AWC, Huen KF, Lam STS, Chow CB (2001) Gaucher disease with pulmonary involvement in a 6-year-old girl: report of resolution of radiographic abnormalities on increasing dose of imiglucerase. J Pediatr 139:862–864Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Yassa N, Wilcox AG (1998) High-resolution CT pulmonary findings in adults with Gaucher’s disease. Clin Imaging 22:339–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Savage COS, Winearls CG, Evans DJ et al. (1985) Microscopic polyarteritis: presentation, pathology and prognosis. Q J Med 56:467–483Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Mark EJ, Ramirez JF (1985) Pulmonary capillaritis and hemorrhage in patients with systemic vasculitis. Arch Pathol Lab Med 109:413–418Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Haworth SJ, Savage COS, Carr D et al (1985) Pulmonary haemorrhage complicating Wegener’s granulomatosis and microscopic polyarteritis. BMJ 290:1775–1778Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Lhote F, Guillevin L (1995) Polyarteritis nodosa, microscopic polyangiitis, and Churg–Strauss syndrome. Clinical aspects and treatment. Rheum Dis Clin N Am 21:911–947Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Schwarz MI, Mortenson RL, Colby TV et al (1993) Pulmonary capillaritis. The association with progressive irreversible airflow limitation and hyperinflation. Am Rev Respir Dis 148:507–511Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Primack SL, Miller RR, Muller NL (1994) Diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage: clinical, pathologic, and imaging features. Am J Roentgenol 164:295–300Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Bowley NB, Steiner RE, Chin WS (1979) The chest x-ray in antiglomerular basement membrane antibody disease (Goodpasture’s syndrome). Clin Radiol 30:419–429Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Cheah FK, Sheppard MN, Hansell DM (1993) Computed tomography of diffuse pulmonary haemorrhage with pathological correlation. Clin Radiol 48:89–93Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    West JB, Mathieu-Costello O (1992) Stress failure of pulmonary capillaries: role in lung and heart disease. Lancet 340:762–767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Lan HY, Paterson DJ, Atkins RC (1991) Initiation and evolution of interstitial leukocytic infiltration in experimental glomerulonephritis. Kidney Int 40:425–433Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Lan HY, Paterson DJ, Hutchinson P, Atkins RC (1991) Leukocyte involvement in the pathogenesis of pulmonary injury in experimental Goodpasture’s syndrome. Lab Invest 64:330–338Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Chan KW, Gibbs AR, Lo WS, Newman GR (1982) Benign sclerosing pneumocytoma of lung (sclerosing haemangioma). Thorax 37:404–412Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Katzenstein AA, Gmelich JT, Carrington CB (1980) Sclerosing hemangioma of the lung: a clinicopathologic study of 51 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 4:343–356Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Tengan I, Suemasu K, Eguchi K et al. (1981) Benign tumors and tumor-like lesions (excluding adenomas) of the lung: radiological and clinicopathological analysis of 48 cases. Jpn J Clin Oncol 11:343–352Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Nagata N, Dairaku M, Sueishi K, Tanaka K (1987) Sclerosing hemangioma of the lung: an epithelial tumor composed of immunohistochemically heterogenous cells. Am J Clin Pathol 88:552–559Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Navas Palacios JJ, Escribano PM, Toledo J, Garzon A, Larru E, Palomera J (1979) Sclerosing hemangioma of the lung: an ultrastructural study. Cancer 44:949–955Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Yousem SA, Wick MR, Singh G et al. (1988) So-called sclerosing hemangiomas of lung: an immunohistochemical study supporting a respiratory epithelial origin. Am J Surg Pathol 12:582–590Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Devouassoux-Shisheboran M, Hayashi T, Linnoila RI, Koss MN, Travis WD (2000) A clinicopathologic study of 100 cases of pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma with immunohistochemical studies. TTF-1 is expressed in both round and surface cells, suggesting an origin from primitive respiratory epithelium. Am J Surg Pathol 24:906–916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Sugio K, Yokoyama H, Kaneko S, Ishida T, Sugimachi K (1992) Sclerosing hemangioma of the lung: radiographic and pathological study. Ann Thorac Surg 53:295–300Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Im J, Kim WH, Han MC, Han YM, Chung JW, Ahn JM, Do YS (1994) Sclerosing hemangiomas of the lung and interlobar fissures: CT findings. J Comput Assist Tomogr 18:34–38Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Nam JE, Ryu YH, Cho SH, Lee YJ, Kim HJ, Lee DY, Choe KO, Kim SJ (2002) Air-trapping zone surrounding sclerosing hemangioma of the lung. J Comput Assist Tomogr 26:358–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Bank YW, Shinn KS, Choi BS (1978) The air meninscus sign in sclerosing hemangioma of the lung. Radiology 128:27–29Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Colby TV (1997) Metastasizing dermatofibroma. Am J Surg Pathol 21:976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Holden WE, Mulkey DD, Kessler S (1982) Multiple peripheral lung cysts and hemoptysis in an otherwise asymptomatic adult. Am Rev Respir Dis 126:930–932Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Joseph MG, Colby TV, Swensen SJ, Mikus JP, Gaensler EA (1990) Multiple cystic fibrohistiocytic tumors of the lung: report of two cases. Mayo Clin Proc 65:192–197Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Osborn M, Mandys V, Beddow E, Ladas G, Florio R, Sheppard MN, Fisher C, Bell SW, Travis WD, Nicholson AG (2003) Cystic fibrohistiocytic tumours presenting in the lung: primary or metastatic disease? Histopathology 43:556–562Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Sagara Y, Hayashi K, Shiraishi Y, Komatsu H, Murakami K, Kataya T, Hebisawa A (1994) The pulmonary air meninscus sign in a case of sclerosing hemangioma. Nihon Kyobu Shikkan Gakkai Zasshi 32:774–778Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Custer G, Balcerzak S, Rinehart J (1982) Human macrophage hemoglobin-iron metabolism in vitro. Am J Hematol 13:23–26Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of RadiologyRoyal Brompton HospitalLondonUK

Personalised recommendations