European Radiology

, Volume 14, Issue 5, pp 849–856 | Cite as

A pragmatic approach to metal artifact reduction in CT: merging of metal artifact reduced images

  • Oliver WatzkeEmail author
  • Willi A. Kalender


The purpose of this study was to improve metal artifact reduction (MAR) in X-ray computed tomography (CT) by the combination of two artifact reduction methods. The presented method constitutes an image-based weighted superposition of images processed with two known methods for MAR: linear interpolation of reprojected metal traces (LI) and multi-dimensional adaptive filtering of the raw data (MAF). Two weighting concepts were realized that take into account mean distances of image points from metal objects or additional directional components. Artifact reduction on patient data from the jaw and the hip region shows that although the application of only one of the MAR algorithms can already improve image quality, these methods have specific drawbacks. While MAF does not correct corrupted CT values, LI often introduces secondary artifacts. The corrective impact of the merging algorithm is almost always superior to the application of only one of the methods. The results obtained with directional weighting are equal to or in many cases better than those of the distance weighting scheme. Merging combines the advantages of two fundamentally different approaches to artifact reduction and can improve the quality of images that are affected by metal artifacts.


Computed tomography Artifacts Image manipulation Correction 



linear interpolation algorithm


multi-dimensional adaptive filtering algorithm


metal artifact reduction

f(x, y)

object function at (x, y)

F(ϑ), F(ξ)

normalized filter function in the direction of the coordinates ϑ and ξ


primary X-ray intensity


transmitted X-ray intensity


number of detectors per detector row



p(β,α), p(ϑ,ξ)

projection data (fan and parallel geometry)


lower threshold of the attenuation of adaptive filtering


maximum value of the attenuation of adaptive filtering

(x, y)

image point


projection angle in fan geometry


angle within the fan relative to the central ray

Δα, Δβ, Δz, Δϑ, Δξ

minimum functions for adaptive filtering


projection angle in parallel geometry


orthogonal distance of a ray to the center of rotation in parallel geometry



This work was supported by Grant no. AZ 286/98 of the Bayerische Forschungsstiftung, Munich, Germany.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Medical PhysicsUniversity Erlangen-NürnbergErlangenGermany

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