Feeding strategies of free-ranging Adélie penguins Pygoscelis adeliae analysed by multiple data recording
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The fine-scale feeding behaviour of free-ranging Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) during a single foraging trip was investigated by monitoring three parameters simultaneously at a frequency of 1 Hz, these being depth, swim speed and oesophagus temperature. Ingestion events were detected as abrupt drops in the oesophageal temperature and related to the birds' foraging behaviour. Although a high percentage of oesophageal temperature loggers were rejected, 1 complete foraging trip was recorded for all the 3 parameters from 1 bird while 92% and 67% of the foraging trip was recorded for 2 other birds; 12.3% of the temperature drops occurred at the surface but they were mainly small, except 61 of them probably representing snow ingestion while the birds were on land. All other drops were observed during dives, 88% of them during the undulatory (and occasionally the ascent) phase of dives deeper than 40 m. The mean swim speed during non-feeding shallow and exploratory dives was relatively constant throughout the dive, around 2.1 m s–1, whereas during feeding deep dives, swim speed during the undulatory phase was lower (1.71 m s–1) than during the descent and ascent and was characterised by a series of rapid accelerations and decelerations; 42.6% of these accelerations were followed by one or more ingestion events and birds swam upward in 60% of the accelerations. Such multiple data recording opens new paths for the examination of the decision-making processes in foraging penguins.
KeywordsFeeding Behaviour Data Recording Temperature Logger Temperature Drop Multiple Data
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