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Biochemical composition and energy content of size-fractionated zooplankton east of the Kerguelen Islands

  • Mireille Harmelin-VivienEmail author
  • Daniela Bӑnaru
  • Charlotte R. Dromard
  • Mélanie Ourgaud
  • François Carlotti
Original Paper

Abstract

Food quality is recognized as a key parameter of food web functioning in which zooplankton plays a crucial role not only in linking lower to upper trophic levels but also in transforming the quality of the organic matter available to predators. The influence of size and taxonomic group composition of zooplankton in these processes was assessed in eastern Kerguelen waters (Southern Ocean) at the onset of the spring bloom in 2011. Biochemical (lipids, proteins and carbohydrates) and elemental (carbon and nitrogen) composition were measured in five size—fractions of bulk zooplankton ranging from 80 µm to > 2000 µm and in large copepods, euphausiids, annelids and salps, and energy content was derived from biochemical contents. Proteins were the dominant component of zooplankton dry weight (21.5% dw), followed by lipids (8.9% dw), soluble carbohydrates (2.2% dw) and insoluble carbohydrates (1.0% dw). A concentration increase with zooplankton size for all biochemical components was observed, particularly stronger for proteins and lipids. Copepods and salps provided, respectively, the highest and the lowest amount of lipids and energy. A four-fold increase in energy content was observed from the smallest to the largest fraction inducing a significant increase (> 10 kJ g−1 dw) in the quality of zooplankton matter. This may explain why large zooplankton represent a major food resource for numerous fish, seabirds and marine mammals in the Southern Ocean. Such unique results are required to better quantify energy dynamics in polar food webs.

Keywords

Southern Ocean Plankton Lipids Proteins Carbohydrates Energy content 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank S. Blain, project coordinator, B. Quéguiner chief scientist on board, and Captain B. Lassiette and the crew of the R/V Marion Dufresnes. Special thanks are due to M.P. Jouandet for her help in sample collection, M.F. Fontaine for biochemical analyzes, to L. Guillou and P. Richard (LIENSs Laboratory, La Rochelle University) for C and N analyzes, and to M. Paul, a native English speaker, for English correction. This work was supported by the French Research program of INSU-CNRS LEFE – CYBER (“Les enveloppes fluides et l’environnement-Cycles biogéochimiques, environnement et resources”), the French ANR (Agence Nationale de la Recherche, ANR-10-BLAN-0614 of SIMI-6 program, and ANR-09-CEXC-006–01 to M. Zhou and F. Carlotti), LABEX OT-MED (No. ANR-11-LABX-0061), the French CNES (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales) and the French Polar Institute IPEV (Insitut Polaire Paul-Emile Victor). The project leading to this publication has received funding from European FEDER Fund under Project 1166-39417. Many thanks are addressed to the three reviewers for their constructive and helpful comments on an earlier version of the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Aix Marseille Université, Université de Toulon, CNRS, IRD, Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography (MIO), UM 110Marseille Cedex 09France
  2. 2.UMR BOREA, CNRS 7208-MNHN-Sorbonne Université-UCN-IRD 207-UA, Laboratoire D’Excellence « CORAIL », Université Des AntillesPointe-à-PitreGuadeloupe

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