Polar Biology

, Volume 40, Issue 5, pp 1127–1138 | Cite as

Seasonal marine mammal occurrence detected from passive acoustic monitoring in Scott Inlet, Nunavut, Canada

  • Marianne MarcouxEmail author
  • Steven H. Ferguson
  • Nathalie Roy
  • Jeannette M. Bedard
  • Yvan Simard
Original Paper


Monitoring Arctic wildlife is important due to the increasing potential impact of environmental and industrial changes. Passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) can be an important tool for wildlife management through observations of several species simultaneously along with abiotic elements such as industrial activity. Here, we use PAM methods to monitor the occurrence of marine mammals over an 8-month period (Oct 2012–May 2013) in Scott Inlet, Nunavut. When marine mammals were present, we investigated possible environmental correlates. Sea ice coverage strongly influenced detections of marine mammal sounds: narwhals and bowhead whales were only present before full ice cover occurred in the fall, while bearded seals and walruses could only be detected after ice formation. Tidal phase, time of the day, water temperature at 300 m depth, and air temperature all influenced detections of narwhal clicks. This PAM study provides a baseline measure for the presence of marine mammals over the fall to spring in Scott Inlet. Long-term PAM in the same location would allow us to document changes in the phenology of marine mammals at this site in relation to environmental changes.


Automated detections Climate change Passive acoustic monitoring Whales 



We would like to thank Elly Chmelnitsky, Kevin Hedges, Nigel Hussey, Bernard LeBlanc, and the crew of the MV Nuliajuk for deployment of recorders, as well as Julie-Anne Dorval for analysis of recording. Thanks to Quinn Fletcher and Cory Matthews for constructive comments. Funding was provided by Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Ocean Tracking Network Canada, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and Earth Rangers.


  1. Au WWL, Hastings MC (2008) Echolocation in marine mammals. In: Principles of marine bioacoustics. Springer, New York, pp 501–564. doi:  10.1007/978-0-387-78365-9_11
  2. Bailleul F, Lesage V, Power M et al (2012) Migration phenology of beluga whales in a changing Arctic. Clim Res 53:169–178. doi: 10.3354/cr01104 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Borcard D, Gillet F, Legendre P (2011) Numerical ecology with R. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Born EW, Giertz I, Reeves RR (1995) Population assessment of Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus L.). Nor Polarinst 138:1–100Google Scholar
  5. Castellote M, Leeney RH, O’Corry-Crowe G et al (2013) Monitoring white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) with echolocation loggers. Polar Biol 36:493–509. doi: 10.1007/s00300-012-1276-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Christensen NL, Bartuska AM, Brown JH et al (1996) The report of the Ecological Society of America committee on the scientific basis for ecosystem management. Ecol Appl 6:665–691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Christiansen JS, Mecklenburg CW, Karamushko OV (2014) Arctic marine fishes and their fisheries in light of global change. Glob Change Biol 20:352–359. doi: 10.1111/gcb.12395 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clark CW, Berchok CL, Blackwell SB et al (2015) A year in the acoustic world of bowhead whales in the Bering, Chukchi and Beaufort seas. Prog Oceanogr 136:223–240. doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2015.05.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cleator HJ, Stirling I, Smith T (1989) Underwater vocalizations of the bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus). Can J Zool 67:1900–1910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cuny J, Rhines PB, Kwok R (2005) Davis Strait volume, freshwater and heat fluxes. Deep Sea Res Part I 52:519–542. doi: 10.1016/j.dsr.2004.10.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Collins M, Knutti R, Arblaster J et al (2013) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Long-term climate change: projections, commitments and irreversibility. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  12. Comiso JC, Hall DK (2014) Climate trends in the Arctic as observed from space. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Clim Change 5:389–409CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Comiso JC, Parkinson CL, Gersten R et al (2008) Accelerated decline in the Arctic sea ice cover. Geophys Res Lett 35:L01703. doi: 10.1029/2007GL031972 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. COSEWIC (2004) COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the beluga whale Delphinapterus leucas in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in CanadaGoogle Scholar
  15. COSEWIC (2006) COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the Atlantic walrus Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in CanadaGoogle Scholar
  16. COSEWIC (2007) Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Accessed 20 Apr 2016
  17. COSEWIC (2009a) COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the bowhead whale Balaena mysticetus, Bering-Chukchi-Beaufort population and Eastern Canada-West Greenland population, in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in CanadaGoogle Scholar
  18. COSEWIC (2009b) COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the narwhal Monodon monoceros in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in CanadaGoogle Scholar
  19. Arctic Council (2009) Arctic marine shipping assessment. Arctic Council, TromsøGoogle Scholar
  20. Cury PM, Mullon C, Garcia SM et al (2005) Viability theory for an ecosystem approach to fisheries. ICES J Mar Sci J Cons 62:577–584. doi: 10.1016/j.icesjms.2004.10.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Davis RW, Ortega-Ortiz JG, Ribic CA et al (2002) Cetacean habitat in the northern oceanic Gulf of Mexico. Deep Sea Res Part I 49:121–142. doi: 10.1016/S0967-0637(01)00035-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dietz R, Heide-Jorgensen MP, Richard PR et al (2001) Summer and fall movements of narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from northeastern Baffin Island towards northern Davis Strait. Arctic 54:244–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Doniol-Valcroze T, Berteaux D, Larouche P et al (2007) Influence of thermal fronts on habitat selection by four rorqual whale species in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 335:207–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Doniol-Valcroze T, Lesage V, Giard J et al (2012) Challenges in marine mammal habitat modelling: evidence of multiple foraging habitats from the identification of feeding events in blue whales. Endanger Species Res 17:255–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dushaw B, Au W, Beszczynska-Möller A et al (2010) A global ocean acoustic observing network. In: Proceedings of OceanObs’ 09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society. pp 259–271Google Scholar
  26. Finley KJ, Gibb EJ (1982) Summer diet of the narwhal (Monodon monoceros) in Pond Inlet, northern Baffin Island. Can J Zool 60:3353–3363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fisheries and Oceans Canada (2007) Development of a closed area in NAFO 0A to protect narwhal over-wintering grounds, including deep-sea corals. Can Sci Advis Secr Science Response 2007/002:16 ppGoogle Scholar
  28. Ford JKB, Fisher HD (1978) Underwater acoustic signals of the narwhal (Monodon monoceros). Can J Zool 56:552–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Freitas C, Kovacs KM, Ims RA et al (2009) Deep into the ice: over-wintering and habitat selection in male Atlantic walruses. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 375:247–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gavrilchuk K, Lesage V (2014) Large-scale marine development projects (mineral, oil and gas, infrastructure) proposed for Canada’s North. Can Tech Rep Fish Aquat Sci 3069:viii + 84 ppGoogle Scholar
  31. Genin A (2004) Bio-physical coupling in the formation of zooplankton and fish aggregations over abrupt topographies. J Mar Syst 50:3–20. doi: 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2003.10.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Heide-Jørgensen MP, Laidre KL, Wiig Ø et al (2003a) From Greenland to Canada in ten days: tracks of bowhead whales, Balaena mysticetus, across Baffin Bay. Arctic 56:21–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Heide-Jørgensen MP, Dietz R, Laidre KL et al (2003b) The migratory behaviour of narwhals (Monodon monoceros). Can J Zool 81:1298–1305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Heide-Jørgensen MP, Laidre KL, Jensen MV et al (2006) Dissolving stock discreteness with satellite tracking: bowhead whales in Baffin Bay. Mar Mammal Sci 22:34–45. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2006.00004.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Heide-Jørgensen MP, Richard PR, Dietz R et al (2013) A metapopulation model for Canadian and West Greenland narwhals. Anim Conserv 16:331–343. doi: 10.1111/acv.12000 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Higdon JW, Hauser DDW, Ferguson SH (2012) Killer whales (Orcinus orca) in the Canadian Arctic: distribution, prey items, group sizes, and seasonality. Mar Mammal Sci 28:E93–E109. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2011.00489.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hussey NE, Cosandey-Godin A, Walter RP et al (2015) Juvenile Greenland sharks Somniosus microcephalus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) in the Canadian Arctic. Polar Biol 38:493–504. doi: 10.1007/s00300-014-1610-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kaleschke L, Heygster G, Lüpkes C et al (2001) SSM/I sea ice remote sensing for mesoscale ocean-atmosphere interaction analysis: ice and icebergs. Can J Remote Sens 27:526–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kandia V, Stylianou Y (2006) Detection of sperm whale clicks based on the Teager–Kaiser energy operator. Appl Acoust 67:1144–1163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kinda B, Simard Y, Gervaise C et al (2013) Under-ice ambient noise in Eastern Beaufort Sea, Canadian Arctic, and relations with environmental forcing. J Acoust Soc Am 134:77–87. doi: 10.1121/1.4808330 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Kovacs KM, Lydersen C, Overland JE et al (2011) Impacts of changing sea-ice conditions on Arctic marine mammals. Mar Biodivers 41:181–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kusel ET, Mellinger DK, Thomas L et al (2011) Cetacean population density estimation from single fixed sensors using passive acoustics. J Acoust Soc Am 129:3610–3622. doi: 10.1121/1.3583504 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Laidre KL, Heide-Jorgensen MP (2005) Winter feeding intensity of narwhals (Monodon monoceros). Mar Mammal Sci 21:45–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Laidre KL, Heide-Jørgensen MP (2012) Spring partitioning of Disko Bay, West Greenland, by Arctic and Subarctic baleen whales. ICES J Mar Sci 69:1226–1233. doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fss095 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Laidre KL, Heide-Jorgensen MP, Jorgensen OA et al (2004) Deep-ocean predation by a high Arctic cetacean. ICES J Mar Sci 61:430–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Laidre KL, Stirling I, Lowry LF et al (2008) Quantifying the sensitivity of Arctic marine mammals to climate-induced habitat change. Ecol Appl 18:S97–S125CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Laidre KL, Stern H, Kovacs KM et al (2015) Arctic marine mammal population status, sea ice habitat loss, and conservation recommendations for the 21st century. Conserv Biol 29:724–737. doi: 10.1111/cobi.12474 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Lavoie D, Simard Y, Saucier FJ (2000) Aggregation and dispersion of krill at channel heads and shelf edges: the dynamics in the Saguenay-St. Lawrence Marine Park. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 57:1853–1869. doi: 10.1139/f00-138 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ljungblad DK, Thompson PO, Moore SE (1982) Underwater sounds recorded from migrating bowhead whales, Balaena mysticetus, in 1979. J Acoust Soc Am 71:477–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. MacIntyre KQ, Stafford KM, Berchok CL, Boveng PL (2013) Year-round acoustic detection of bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) in the Beaufort Sea relative to changing environmental conditions, 2008–2010. Polar Biol 36:1161–1173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Mansfield AW (1967) Seals of Arctic and Eastern Canada. Fish Res Board Can Bulletin No. 137, 2nd edn. vii + 35 ppGoogle Scholar
  52. Mansfield AW, Smith TG, Beck B (1975) The narwhal, Monodon monoceros, in eastern Canadian waters. J Fish Board Can 32:1041–1046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Marcoux M, Auger-Méthé M, Humphries MM (2009) Encounter frequencies and grouping patterns of narwhals in Koluktoo Bay, Baffin Island. Polar Biol 32:1705–1716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Marcoux M, Auger-Méthé M, Chmelnitsky EG et al (2011a) Local passive acoustic monitoring of narwhals in the Canadian Arctic: a pilot project. Arctic 64:307–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Marcoux M, Auger-Méthé M, Humphries MM (2011b) Variability and context-specificity of narwhal (Monodon monoceros) whistles and pulsed calls. Mar Mammal Sci 28:649–665. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2011.00514.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Marques TA, Thomas L, Ward J et al (2009) Estimating cetacean population density using fixed passive acoustic sensors: an example with Blainville’s beaked whales. J Acoust Soc Am 125:1982–1994CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Marques TA, Thomas L, Martin SW et al (2013) Estimating animal population density using passive acoustics. Biol Rev 88:287–309. doi: 10.1111/brv.12001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Martin A, Doddington G, Kamm T et al (1997) The DET curve in assessment of detection task performance. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg MD 20899 8940:4 ppGoogle Scholar
  59. Mellinger DK, Stafford KM, Moore SE et al (2007) An overview of fixed passive acoustic observation methods for cetaceans. Oceanography 20:36–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mesinger F, DiMego G, Kalnay E et al (2006) North American regional reanalysis. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 87:343–360. doi: 10.1175/BAMS-87-3-343 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Miksis-Olds JL, Stabeno PJ, Napp JM et al (2013) Ecosystem response to a temporary sea ice retreat in the Bering Sea: winter 2009. Prog Oceanogr 111:38–51. doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2012.10.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Miller LA, Pristed J, Mohl B et al (1995) The click-sounds of narwhals (Monodon monoceros) in Inglefield Bay, northwest Greenland. Mar Mammal Sci 11:491–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Møhl B, Surlykke A, Milller LA (1990) High intensity narwhal clicks. In: Thomas JH, Kastelein R (eds) Sensory abilities of cetaceans: laboratory and field evidence. Plenum Press, New York, pp 295–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Moore SE, Huntington HP (2008) Arctic marine mammals and climate change: impacts and resilience. Ecol Appl 18:S157–S165CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Nichols JD, Williams BK (2006) Monitoring for conservation. Trends Ecol Evol 21:668–673. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2006.08.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Nieukirk SL, Mellinger DK, Moore SE et al (2012) Sounds from airguns and fin whales recorded in the mid-Atlantic Ocean, 1999–2009. J Acoust Soc Am 131:1102–1112. doi: 10.1121/1.3672648 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Nunavut Wildlife Management Board (NWMB) (2000) Final Report of the Inuit Bowhead Knowledge Study. Iqaluit, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  68. Oakey S, Chaffey J, Dupont F et al (2014) WebTide Tidal Prediction Model (v0.7.1). Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Fisheries and Oceans CanadaGoogle Scholar
  69. Pikitch E, Santora E, Babcock A et al (2004) Ecosystem-based fishery management. Science 305:346–347CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Ramp C, Delarue J, Palsbøll PJ et al (2015) Adapting to a warmer ocean—seasonal shift of baleen whale movements over three decades. PLoS One 10:e0121374. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0121374 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Reeves R, Mitchell E, Mansfield A et al (1983) Distribution and migration of the bowhead whale, Balaena mysticetus, in the eastern North American Arctic. Arctic 36:5–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Remnant R, Thomas M (1992) Inuit traditional knowledge of the distribution and biology of High Arctic narwhal and beluga. North/South Consultants, WinnipegGoogle Scholar
  73. Richard P, Orr J, Dietz R et al (1998) Sightings of belugas and other marine mammals in the North Water, late March 1993. Arctic 51:1–4Google Scholar
  74. Risch D, Clark CW, Corkeron PJ et al (2007) Vocalizations of male bearded seals, Erignathus barbatus: classification and geographical variation. Anim Behav 73:747–762. doi: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2006.06.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Roch MA, Soldevilla MS, Hoenigman R et al (2008) Comparison of machine learning techniques for the classification of echolocation clicks from three species of odontocetes. Can Acoust 36:41–47Google Scholar
  76. Roy N, Simard Y, Gervaise C (2010) 3D tracking of foraging belugas from their clicks: experiment from a coastal hydrophone array. Appl Acoust 71:1050–1056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Serreze MC, Holland MM, Stroeve J (2007) Perspectives on the Arctic’s shrinking sea-ice cover. Science 315:1533–1536CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Shapiro AD (2006) Preliminary evidence for signature vocalizations among free-ranging narwhals (Monodon monoceros). J Acoust Soc Am 120:1695–1705CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Simard Y, Harvey M (2010) Predation on Northern Krill (Meganyctiphanes norvegica Sars). In: Tarling GE (ed) Advances in marine biology. Elsevier, London, pp 277–306Google Scholar
  80. Simard Y, Loseto L, Gautier S et al (2014) Monitoring beluga habitat use and underwater noise levels in the Mackenzie estuary: application of passive acoustics in summers 2011 and 2012. Can Tech Rep Fish Aquat Sci 3068:vi + 49 ppGoogle Scholar
  81. Simmonds MP, Isaac SJ (2007) The impacts of climate change on marine mammals: early signs of significant problems. Oryx 41:19–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sjare B, Stirling I (1996) The breeding behavior of Atlantic walruses, Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus, in the Canadian High Arctic. Can J Zool 74:897–911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sjare B, Stirling I, Spencer C (2003) Structural variation in the songs of Atlantic walruses breeding in the Canadian High Arctic. Aquat Mamm 29:297–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Spreen G, Kaleschke L, Heygster G (2008) Sea ice remote sensing using AMSR-E 89-GHz channels. J Geophys Res 113:C02S03. doi: 10.1029/2005JC003384 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Stafford KM, Fox CG, Clark DS (1998) Long-range acoustic detection and localization of blue whale calls in the northeast Pacific Ocean. J Acoust Soc Am 104:3616–3625. doi: 10.1121/1.423944 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Stafford KM, Moore SE, Spillane M et al (2007) Gray whale calls recorded near Barrow, Alaska, throughout the winter of 2003–2004. Arctic 60:167–172Google Scholar
  87. Stafford KM, Laidre KL, Heide-Jørgensen MP (2012) First acoustic recordings of narwhals (Monodon monoceros) in winter. Mar Mammal Sci 28:E197–E207. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2011.00500.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Stewart DB (2001) Inuit knowledge of belugas and narwhals in the Canadian Eastern Arctic. Report prepared under contract for the Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Iqaluit, Nunavut. iv + 32 ppGoogle Scholar
  89. Stirling I (1997) The importance of polynyas, ice edges, and leads to marine mammals and birds. J Mar Syst 10:9–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Stirling I, Calvert W, Cleator H (1983) Underwater vocalizations as a tool for studying the distribution and relative abundance of wintering pinnipeds in the High Arctic. Arctic 36:262–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Stirling I, Calvert W, Spencer C (1987) Evidence of stereotyped underwater vocalizations of male Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus). Can J Zool 65:2311–2321. doi: 10.1139/z87-348 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Tang CC, Ross CK, Yao T et al (2004) The circulation, water masses and sea-ice of Baffin Bay. Prog Oceanogr 63:183–228. doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2004.09.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Tervo OM, Parks SE, Miller LA (2009) Seasonal changes in the vocal behavior of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) in Disko Bay, Western-Greenland. J Acoust Soc Am 126:1570–1580CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Thomisch K, Boebel O, Zitterbart DP et al (2015) Effects of subsampling of passive acoustic recordings on acoustic metrics. J Acoust Soc Am 138:267–278. doi: 10.1121/1.4922703 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Tremblay J-É, Bélanger S, Barber DG et al (2011) Climate forcing multiplies biological productivity in the coastal Arctic Ocean: upwelling and productivity in the Arctic. Geophys Res Lett 38:L18604. doi: 10.1029/2011GL048825 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Van Parijs SM, Kovacs KM, Lydersen C (2001) Spatial and temporal distribution of vocalising male bearded seals: implications for male mating strategies. Behaviour 138:905–922CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Van Parijs SM, Lydersen C, Kovacs KM (2003) Vocalizations and movements suggest alternative mating tactics in male bearded seals. Anim Behav 65:273–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Vibe C (1950) The marine mammals and the marine fauna in the Thule district (Northwest Greenland) with observations on the ice conditions in 1939–1941. Meddelelser Om Grønl 150:1–115Google Scholar
  99. Wassmann P, Duarte CM, Agusti S et al (2011) Footprints of climate change in the Arctic marine ecosystem. Glob Change Biol 17:1235–1249. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02311.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Watson GS (1961) Goodness-of-fit tests on a circle. Biometrika 48:109–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Watt CA, Orr J, LeBlanc B, et al (2012) Satellite tracking of narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from Admiralty Inlet (2009) and Eclipse Sound (2010–2011). DFO Can Sci Advis Sec Res Doc 2012/046: iii + 17 ppGoogle Scholar
  102. Witherell D, Pautzke C, Fluharty D (2000) An ecosystem-based approach for Alaska groundfish fisheries. ICES J Mar Sci J Cons 57:771–777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Zuur A, Ieno E, Walker N et al (2009) Mixed effects models and extensions in ecology with R. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marianne Marcoux
    • 1
    Email author
  • Steven H. Ferguson
    • 1
  • Nathalie Roy
    • 2
  • Jeannette M. Bedard
    • 3
  • Yvan Simard
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Freshwater InstituteFisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University CrescentWinnipegCanada
  2. 2.Institut Maurice-Lamontagne, Fisheries and Oceans CanadaSainte-FlavieCanada
  3. 3.School of Earth and Ocean SciencesUniversity of VictoriaVictoriaCanada
  4. 4.Institut des sciences de la mer de RimouskiRimouskiCanada

Personalised recommendations