New encounters in Arctic waters: a comparison of metabolism and performance of polar cod (Boreogadus saida) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) under ocean acidification and warming
- 976 Downloads
Oceans are experiencing increasing acidification in parallel to a distinct warming trend in consequence of ongoing climate change. Rising seawater temperatures are mediating a northward shift in distribution of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), into the habitat of polar cod (Boreogadus saida), that is associated with retreating cold water masses. This study investigates the competitive strength of the co-occurring gadoids under ocean acidification and warming (OAW) scenarios. Therefore, we incubated specimens of both species in individual tanks for 4 months, under different control and projected temperatures (polar cod: 0, 3, 6, 8 °C, Atlantic cod: 3, 8, 12, 16 °C) and PCO2 conditions (390 and 1170 µatm) and monitored growth, feed consumption and standard metabolic rate. Our results revealed distinct temperature effects on both species. While hypercapnia by itself had no effect, combined drivers caused nonsignificant trends. The feed conversion efficiency of normocapnic polar cod was highest at 0 °C, while optimum growth performance was attained at 6 °C; the long-term upper thermal tolerance limit was reached at 8 °C. OAW caused only slight impairments in growth performance. Under normocapnic conditions, Atlantic cod consumed progressively increasing amounts of feed than individuals under hypercapnia despite maintaining similar growth rates during warming. The low feed conversion efficiency at 3 °C may relate to the lower thermal limit of Atlantic cod. In conclusion, Atlantic cod displayed increased performance in the warming Arctic such that the competitive strength of polar cod is expected to decrease under future OAW conditions.
KeywordsClimate change Gadoids Hypercapnia Thermal window Growth Feed consumption RCP 8.5
This project was funded through the research program BIOACID (Biological Impacts of Ocean Acidification, phase II) by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF, WP 4.1 and 4.2, FKZ 03F0655B, FKZ 03F0728B). All authors acknowledge funding through the PACES (Polar Regions and Coasts in a Changing Earth System) program of the Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI). Furthermore, the authors gratefully acknowledge Jasmine Nahrgang and the project Polarisation (Norwegian Research Council, No. 214184/F20) for providing polar cod. We thank the crews of RV Heincke (AWI, funding No. AWI_HE 408_00) and RV Helmer Hanssen (University of Tromsø) for animal collection. Further, we would like to thank Timo Hirse and Sebastian Berger for technical assistance with the manipulation of CO2 partial pressure, Anette Tillmann, Karim Zanaty, Marcel Machnik, Benjamin Matthei and Fredy Véliz Moraleda for their contribution to the measurements of pH and DIC, and Christiane Hassenrück for determining the stomach weights of polar cod. We highly appreciate the constructive comments of the editor Dieter Piepenburg, Tony Hickey, Harald Gjøsæter and one anonymous referee on the submitted manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in the present study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the federal state of Bremen, Germany, and were approved under the reference number 522-27-22/02-00 (113).
- Bradstreet MSW, Finley KJ, Sekerak AD, Griffiths WB, Evans CR, Fabijan MF, Stallard HE (1986) Aspects of the biology of Arctic cod Boreogadus saida and its importance in Arctic marine food chains. Can Tech Rep Fish Aquat Sci 1491:1–193Google Scholar
- Brander KM (1994) Patterns of distribution, spawning, and growth in North Atlantic cod: the utility of inter-regional comparisons. ICES Mar Sci 198:406–413Google Scholar
- Brander KM, Blom G, Borges MF, Erzini K, Henderson G, MacKenzie BR, Mendes H, Santos AMP, Toresen P (2003) Changes in fish distribution in the eastern North Atlantic: are we seeing a coherent response to changing temperature? ICES Mar Sci 219:261–270Google Scholar
- Brett JR (1979) Environmental factors and growth. In: Hoar WS, Randall DJ, Brett JR (eds) Fish physiology, vol 8., Academic PressNew York, NY, pp 599–675Google Scholar
- Christiansen JS (1995) Food consumption and growth rate variations in male and female polar cod (Boreogadus saida). ICES Council Meeting (Theme Session P) Causes of Observed Variations in Fish Growth P:9Google Scholar
- Christiansen JS, Schurmann H, Siikavuopio S (1996) Nonthermal correlates of selected temperature in capelin and polar cod–current lines of research. ICES Council Meeting (Theme Session H) H:7Google Scholar
- Fischer T (2002) The effects of climate induced temperature changes on cod (Gadus morhua L.): Linking ecological and physiological investigations. Dissertation, University of BremenGoogle Scholar
- Fulton TW (1911) The Sovereignty of the Sea: an historical account of the claims of england to the dominion of the British Seas, and of the Evolution of the territorial waters, with special reference to the rights of fishing and the naval salute. The Lawbook Exchange Ltd, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
- Gjøsæter H (2009) Commercial fisheries (fish, seafood, marine mammals). In: Sakshaug E, Johnsen G, Kovacs KM (eds) Ecosystem Barents Sea. Tapir Academic Press, Trondheim, pp 373–414Google Scholar
- Hop H, Welch HE, Crawford RE (1997b) Population structure and feeding ecology of Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) schools in the Canadian High Arctic. In: Reynolds J (ed) Fish ecology in Arctic North America, American Fisheries Society Symposium 19. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, pp 68–80Google Scholar
- Jobling M (1994) Fish bioenergetics. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Koehn RK, Shumway SE (1982) A genetic/physiological explanation for differential growth rate among individuals of the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin). Mar Biol Lett 3:35–42Google Scholar
- Lewis E, Wallace DWR (1998) Program developed for CO2 system calculations. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN. ORNL/CDIAC-105Google Scholar
- Malmberg S, Blindheim J (1994) Climate, cod, and capelin in northern waters. ICES Mar Sci 198:297–310Google Scholar
- Michael K, Kreiss CM, Hu MY, Koschnick N, Bickmeyer U, Dupont S, Pörtner HO, Lucassen M (2016) Adjustments of molecular key components of branchial ion and pH regulation in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in response to ocean acidification and warming. Comp Biochem Phys B 193:33–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pörtner HO, Berdal B, Blust R, Brix O, Colosimo A, De Wachter B, Giuliani A, Johansen T, Fischer T, Knust R, Lannig G, Naevdal G, Nedenes A, Nyhammer G, Satoris FJ, Serendero I, Sirabella P, Thorkildsen S, Zakhartsev M (2001) Climate induced temperature effects on growth performance, fecundity and recruitment in marine fish: developing a hypothesis for cause and effect relationships in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and common eelpout (Zoarces viviparus). Cont Shelf Res 21:1975–1997CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pörtner H-O, Karl DM, Boyd PW, Cheung WWL, Lluch-Cota SE, Nojiri Y, Schmidt DN, Zavialov PO (2014) Ocean systems. In: Field CB, Barros VR, Dokken DJ, Mach KJ, Mastrandrea MD, Bilir TE, Chatterjee M, Ebi KL, Estrada YO, Genova RC, Girma B, Kissel ES, Levy AN, MacCracken S, Mastrandrea PR, White LL (eds.) Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part A: global and sectoral aspects. Contribution of working group II to the Fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York, NY, pp 411–484Google Scholar
- R Core Team (2013) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. URL http://www.R-project.org/
- Smart GR (1981) Aspects of water quality producing stress in intensive fish culture. In: Pickering AD (ed) Stress and fish. Academic Press, London, pp 277–293Google Scholar
- Welch HE, Crawford RE, Hop H (1993) Occurrence of Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) schools and their vulnerability to predation in the Canadian High Arctic. Arctic 46:331–339Google Scholar
- Zeileis A (2006) Object-Oriented Computation of Sandwich Estimators. J Stat Softw 16:1–16. URL http://www.jstatsoft.org/v16/i09/