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Polar Biology

, Volume 39, Issue 9, pp 1663–1677 | Cite as

Distribution of rDNA and polyploidy in Deschampsia antarctica E. Desv. in Antarctic and Patagonic populations

  • María Laura González
  • Juan Domingo Urdampilleta
  • Mariana Fasanella
  • Andrea Cecilia Premoli
  • Jorge Oscar Chiapella
Original Paper

Abstract

Unlike the Arctic flora, with many flowering plant species offering opportunities to study evolutionary processes, the Antarctic flora offers only two. One of them is the Antarctic grass Deschampsia antarctica E. Desv., whose distribution spans from northern Patagonia (ca. 38°S) down to Alamode Island (ca. 68°S), in the west side of the Antarctic Peninsula. While some aspects of Antarctic plants have been extensively studied (e.g., anatomy, physiology, genetics), little is known about the related Patagonian populations. Particularly in cytogenetics, no single study has focused on continental populations and its relationships with the Antarctic plants. The combination of traditional fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with a phylogenetic framework highlights the importance of cytogenetics in plant evolutionary studies, by allowing comparison of chromosome characters in phylogenetically related individuals. Most used characters for this purpose are the chromosome number, karyotype morphology and patterns of repetitive DNA. These were used to compare distant populations of D. antarctica in a phylogenetic framework, to obtain a first view of the cytogenetic structure of the species along its distribution. Patagonian populations have greater variability in the chromosomal and molecular characters, while Antarctic populations are very alike, hinting at a South American origin hypothesis. A polyploid population is reported for the first time, located on Central Patagonia populations, close to the northern limit of distribution range. Cytogenetic characteristics suggest that hybridization processes could have played an important role in the evolution of the genome of D. antarctica.

Keywords

Deschampsia antarctica Karyotype FISH Highly repetitive DNA Polyploidy Phylogeny 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to CONICET, ANPCyT-FONCyT and SECyT-UNC for financial support and to Dirección Nacional del Antártico and the personnel of the Carlini Station for logistic support for fieldwork in Antarctica. This work was funded by Project PICTO 2010–0095 (ANPCyT-DNA).

Supplementary material

300_2016_1890_MOESM1_ESM.docx (24 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 24 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • María Laura González
    • 1
  • Juan Domingo Urdampilleta
    • 1
  • Mariana Fasanella
    • 2
  • Andrea Cecilia Premoli
    • 2
  • Jorge Oscar Chiapella
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología VegetalConsejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas - Universidad Nacional de CórdobaCórdobaArgentina
  2. 2.Laboratorio EcotonoUniversidad Nacional del Comahue-CRUBBarilocheArgentina

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