Advertisement

Polar Biology

, Volume 39, Issue 2, pp 327–341 | Cite as

Distribution and vertical fluxes of silicoflagellates, ebridians, and the endoskeletal dinoflagellate Actiniscus in the western Arctic Ocean

  • Jonaotaro OnoderaEmail author
  • Eiji Watanabe
  • Shigeto Nishino
  • Naomi Harada
Original Paper

Abstract

Spatial and temporal variations in major phytoplankton populations such as diatoms in the changing Arctic Ocean have been well studied, whereas only a few monitoring studies have been conducted on minor siliceous flagellates. To discern the relationship between hydrographic conditions and the spatio-temporal distribution of silicoflagellates, ebridians, and the endoskeletal dinoflagellate Actiniscus pentasterias, we analyzed seawater and bottom-tethered sediment-trap samples from the western Arctic Ocean. Silicoflagellates and ebridians were commonly observed in shelf waters around the southern Chukchi Sea in September–October during 2010 and 2013. However, one mesoscale patch with abundant silicoflagellates and ebridians was observed in the southwestern Canada Basin during September–October 2010. This offshore patch reflected an unusual occurrence of a mesoscale eddy deriving from the Alaskan Coastal Water. The active lateral transport of shelf materials by eddies was also evident in high silicoflagellate and ebridian fluxes at station Northwind Abyssal Plain (NAP) (75°N, 162°W, 1975-m water depth) in November–December during 2010 and 2011. The summer silicoflagellate flux at station NAP was mainly composed of Distephanus speculum. During the sea-ice cover period, except for July, silicoflagellates D. medianoctisol and D. octonarius were relatively abundant in the assemblage. The spike in D. speculum flux during July 2011 was observed with fecal pellets containing abundant silicoflagellates, suggesting a temporal silicoflagellate contribution to some kinds of zooplankton. The common occurrence of A. pentasterias in settling particles at station NAP during the winter may indicate their tolerance to cold water under sea ice.

Keywords

Silicoflagellate Ebridian Actiniscus pentasterias Sinking particles Sediment trap Northwind Abyssal Plain Chukchi Sea Arctic Ocean 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful for the excellent assistance with the mooring operations provided by the captains, crew, chief scientists, onboard technician, and scientists of the R/V Mirai [Japan Agency for Marine Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC)] cruises MR10-05, MR12-E03 and MR13-06, and I/B CCGS S. W. Laurier in 2011. We thank Dr. Takashi Kikuchi (JAMSTEC) for cruise logistics, and Dr. Yuichiro Tanaka [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Japan] for providing the sediment trap equipment. This work was funded by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S) of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) JFY2010-2014, no. 22221003, “Catastrophic reduction of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean: its impact on the marine ecosystems in the polar region” to N.H., a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) of JSPS, no. 15H01736, and JSPS Research Fellowships for Young Scientists no. 22-5808 to J.O.

Supplementary material

300_2015_1784_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (213 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 213 kb)

References

  1. Arrigo KR, Perovich DK, Pickart RS, Brown ZW, van Dijken GL, Lowry KE, Mills MM, Palmer MA, Balch WM, Bahr F, Bates NR, Benitez-Nelson C, Bowler B, Brownlee E, Ehn JK, Frey KE, Garley R, Laney SR, Lubelczyk L, Mathis J, Matsuoka A, Mitchell BG, Moore WK, Ortega-Retuerta E, Pal S, Polashenski CM, Reynolds RA, Schieber B, Sosik HM, Stephens M, Swift JH (2012) Massive phytoplankton blooms under Arctic Sea ice. Science 336:1408CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bukry D, Foster JH (1973) Silicoflagellate and diatom stratigraphy, Leg 16, Deep Sea Drilling Project. In: Van Andel TH, Heath GR et al (eds) Initial Rep DSDP 16:815–871Google Scholar
  3. Danielson S, Curchitser E, Hedstrom K, Weingartner T, Stabeno P (2011) On ocean and sea ice modes of variability in the Bering Sea. J Geophys Res 116:C12034. doi: 10.1029/2011JC007389 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Deflandre G (1932) Sur la systématique des Silicoflagellés. Bull Soc Bot France 79:494–506Google Scholar
  5. Ehrenberg CG (1854) Mikrogeologie. Leopold Voss, LipzigGoogle Scholar
  6. Fragoso GM, Smith WO Jr (2012) Influence of hydrography on phytoplankton distribution in the Amundsen and Ross Seas, Antarctica. J Mar Syst 89:19–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Grebmeier JM, Moore SE, Overland JE, Frey KE, Gradinger R (2010) Biological response to recent Pacific Arctic Sea ice retreats. Eos 91:161–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Haeckel E (1887) Report on the radiolaria collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873–1876. Report on the scientific results of the voyage of H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873–1876 18:1–1803Google Scholar
  9. Hargraves PE (2002) The ebridian flagellates Ebria and Hermesinum. Plankton Biol Ecol 49:9–16Google Scholar
  10. Hasumi H (2006) CCSR ocean component model (COCO) version 40, Center for Climate System Research Report, vol 25. University of Tokyo, Tokyo, pp 1–103Google Scholar
  11. Ikenoue T, Bjørklund KR, Krugulikova SB, Onodera J, Kimoto K, Harada N (2015) Flux variations and vertical distributions of siliceous Rhizaria (Radiolaria and Phaeodaria) in the western Arctic Ocean: indices of environmental changes. Biogeosciences 12:2019–2046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kawaguchi Y, Itoh M, Nishino S (2012) Detailed survey of a large baroclinic eddy with extremely high temperatures in the Western Canada Basin. Deep Sea Res I 66:90–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Korhola A, Grönlund T (1999) Observations of Ebria tripartita (Schumann) Lemmermann in Baltic sediments. J Paleolimnol 21:1–8Google Scholar
  14. Lange CB, Weinheimer AL, Reid FMH, Tappa E, Thunell RC (2000) Response of siliceous microplankton from the Santa Barbara Basin to the 1997–1998 El Nino event. Cal Coop Ocean Fish 41:186–193Google Scholar
  15. Lemmermann E (1899) Ergebnisse einer Reise nach dem Pacific. Planktonalgen Abh. Naturwiss. Ver. Bremen 16:313–398Google Scholar
  16. Ling HY (1973) Silicoflagellates and ebridians from leg 19. In: Creager JS, Scholl DW et al (eds) Initial Rep DSDP 19:751–775Google Scholar
  17. Malinverno E (2010) Extant morphotypes of Distephanus speculum (Silicoflagellata) from the Australian sector of the Southern Ocean: morphology, morphometry and biogeography. Mar Micropaleontol 77:154–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Matsuno K, Ichinomiya M, Yamaguchi A, Imai I, Kikuchi T (2014a) Horizontal distribution of microprotisst community structure in the western Arctic Ocean during late summer and early fall of 2010. Polar Biol 37:1185–1195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Matsuno K, Yamaguchi A, Fujiwara A, Onodera J, Watanabe E, Imai I, Chiba S, Harada N, Kikuchi T (2014b) Seasonal changes in mesozooplankton swimmers collected by sediment trap moored at a single station on the Northwind Abyssal Plain in the western Arctic Ocean. J Plankton Res 36:490–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Matsuno K, Yamaguchi A, Fujiwara A, Onodera J, Watanabe E, Harada N, Kikuchi T (submitted) Seasonal changes in meso zooplankton swimmer community and faecal pellets collected by sediment trap moored at the Northwind Abyssal Plain in the western Arctic Ocean. Polar BiolGoogle Scholar
  21. McLaughlin FA, Carmack EC (2010) Deepening of the nutricline and chlorophyll maximum in the Canada Basin interior, 2003–2009. Geophys Res Lett 37:L24602. doi: 10.1029/2010GL045459 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Melnikov IA (1997) The Arctic sea ice ecosystem. Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  23. Menden-Deuer S, Lessard EJ (2000) Carbon to volume relationships for dinoflagellates, diatoms, and other protist plankton. Limnol Oceanogr 45:569–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nishino S, Kikuchi T, Yamamoto-Kawai M, Kawaguchi Y, Hirawake T, Itoh M (2011a) Enhancement/reduction of biological pump depends on ocean circulation in the sea-ice reduction regions of the Arctic Ocean. J Oceanogr 67:305–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nishino S, Itoh M, Kawaguchi Y, Kikuchi T, Aoyama M (2011b) Impact of and unusually large warm-core eddy on distributions of nutrients and phytoplankton in the southwestern Canada Basin during late summer/early fall 2010. Geophys Res Lett 38:L16602. doi: 10.1029/2011GL047885 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Onodera J, Takahashi K (2005) Silicoflagellate fluxes and environmental variations in the northwestern North Pacific during December 1997–May 2000. Deep Sea Res I 52:371–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Onodera J, Takahashi K (2012) Oceanographic conditions influencing silicoflagellate flux assemblages in the Bering Sea and subarctic Pacific Ocean during 1990–1994. Deep Sea Res II 61–64:4–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Onodera J, Watanabe E, Harada N, Honda MC (2015) Diatom flux reflects water-mass conditions on the southern Northwind Abyssal Plain, Arctic Ocean. Biogeosciences 12:1373–1385. doi: 10.5194/bg-12-1373-2015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Orr WN, Conley S (1976) Siliceous dinoflagellates in the northeast Pacific rim. Micropaleontology 22:92–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Osawa M, Takahashi K, Hay BJ (2005) Shell-bearing plankton fluxes in the central Black sea, 1989–1991. Deep Sea Res I 52:1677–1698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Poelchau HS (1976) Distribution of Holocene silicoflagellates in North Pacific sediments. Micropaleontology 22:164–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rigual-Hernández AS, Bárcena MA, Sierro FJ, Flores JA, Hernandz-Almeida H, Sanchez-Vidal A, Palanques A, Heussner S (2010) Seasonal to interannual variability and geographic disribuiton of the silicoflagellate fluxes in the Western Mediterranean. Mar Micropaleontol 77:46–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Romero O, Lange CB, Wefer G (2002) Interannual variability (1988–1991) of siliceous phytoplankton fluxes off northwest Africa. J Plankton Res 24:1035–1046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Romero O, Rixen T, Herunadi B (2009) Effects of hydrographic and climatic forcing on diatom production and export in the tropical southeastern Indian Ocean. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 384:69–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Saha S, Moorthi S, Pan H-L, Wu X, Wang J, Nadiga S, Tripp P, Kistler R, Woollen J, Behringer D, Liu H, Stokes D, Grumbine R, Gayno G, Wang J, Hou Y-T, Chuang H, Juang H-MH, Sela J, Iredell M, Treadon R, Kleist D, Delst PV, Keyser D, Derber J, Ek M, Meng J, Wei H, Yang R, Lord S, van den Dool H, Kumar A, Wang W, Long C, Chelliah M, Xue Y, Huang B, Schemm J-K, Ebisuzaki W, Lin R, Xie P, Chen M, Zhou S, Higgins W, Zou C-Z, Liu Q, Chen Y, Han Y, Cucurull L, Reynolds RW, Rutledge G, Goldberg M (2010) The NCEP climate forecast system reanalysis. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 91:1015–1057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schlitzer R (2015) Ocean data view. http://odv.awi.de
  37. Stroeve JC, Serree MC, Holland MM, Kay JE, Malanik J, Barrett AP (2012) The Arctic’s rapidly shrinking sea ice cover: a research synthesis. Clim Change 110:1005–1027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Takahashi K (1987) Seasonal fluxes of silicoflagellates and Actiniscus in the subarctic Pacific during 1982–1984. J Mar Res 45:397–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Takahashi K, Billings JD, Morgan JK (1990) Oceanic province: assessment from the time-series diatom fluxes in the northeastern Pacific. Limnol Oceanogr 35:154–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Takahashi K, Onodera J, Katsuki K (2009) Significant populations of seven-sided Distephanus (Silicoflagellata) in the sea-ice covered environment of the central Arctic Ocean, summer 2004. Micropaleontology 55:313–325Google Scholar
  41. Vørs N (1992) Heterotrophic amoebae, flagellates, and heliozoa from the Tvärminne area, Gulf of Finland, in 1988–1990. Ophelia 36:1–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wang J, Hu H, Goes J, Miksis-Olds J, Mouw C, D’Sa E, Gomes H, Wang DR, Mizobata K, Saitoh S, Luo L (2013) A modeling study of seasonal variations of sea ice and plankton in the Bering and Chukchi Seas during 2007–2008. J Geophys Res Oceans 118:1–14. doi: 10.1029/2012JC008322 Google Scholar
  43. Wassmann P, Duarte CM, Agust S, Sejr MK (2011) Footprints of climate change in the Arctic marine ecosystem. Glob Change Biol 17:1235–1249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Watanabe E, Kishi MJ, Ishida A, Aita MN (2012) Western Arctic primary productivity regulated by shelf-break warm eddies. J Oceanogr 68:703–718. doi: 10.1007/s10872-012-0128-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Watanabe E, Onodera J, Harada N, Honda MC, Kimoto K, Kikuchi T, Nishino S, Matsuno K, Yamaguchi A, Ishida A, Kishi MJ (2014) Enhanced role of eddies in the Arctic marine biological pump. Nat Commun 5:3950. doi: 10.1038/ncomms4950 PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Zernova VV, Nöthig E-M, Shevchenko VP (2000) Vertical microalga flux in the northern Laptev Sea (from the data collected by the yearlong sediment trap). Oceanology 40:801–808Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jonaotaro Onodera
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Eiji Watanabe
    • 2
  • Shigeto Nishino
    • 2
  • Naomi Harada
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Research and Development Center for Global ChangeJapan Agency for Marine Earth Science and TechnologyYokosukaJapan
  2. 2.Institute of Arctic Climate and Environment ResearchJapan Agency for Marine Earth Science and TechnologyYokosukaJapan

Personalised recommendations