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Polar Biology

, Volume 39, Issue 10, pp 1819–1839 | Cite as

Lipid composition of the three co-existing Calanus species in the Arctic: impact of season, location and environment

  • P. MayzaudEmail author
  • S. Falk-Petersen
  • M. Noyon
  • A. Wold
  • M. Boutoute
Original Paper

Abstract

Arctic species of Calanus are critical to energy transfer between higher and lower trophic levels and their relative abundance, and lipid content is influenced by the alternation of cold and warm years. All three species of Calanus were collected during different periods in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, 79°N) and adjacent shelf during the abnormally warm year of 2006. Lipid composition and fatty acid structure of individual lipid classes were examined in relation with population structure. Wax esters dominated the neutral lipid fraction. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) dominated the structural lipids followed by phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). PC/PE ratios of 3–6 suggested an increase in PC proportions compared to earlier studies. Depending on the time scale, fatty acids of wax esters illustrated either trophic differences between fjord and offshore conditions for C. hyperboreus and C. finmarchicus or trophic differences related to seasonality for C. glacialis. Similarly, seasonality and trophic conditions controlled the changes in fatty acids of triglycerides, but de novo synthesis of long-chain monoenes suggested energy optimization to cope with immediate metabolic needs. Polar lipids fatty acid composition was species specific and on the long-term (comparison with data from the past decade) composition appears related to changes in trophic environment. Fatty acid composition of PC and PE indicated relative dominance of 20:5n-3 in PC and 22:6n-3 in PE for all three species. The combination of PE and PC acyl chain and phospholipid head group restructuring indicates an inter-annual variability and suggests that membrane lipids are the most likely candidate to evaluate adaptive changes in Arctic copepods to hydrothermal regime.

Keywords

Arctic Calanus Lipids Fatty acids Polar lipids Climate 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank the crew of the R/V Jan Mayen and R/V Lance for their help during sampling as well as Kings Bay and the Norwegian Polar Institute for their technical and logistic support during this work. This work is a contribution to the Praceal project 455 funded by the French Polar Institute Paul Emile Victor (IPEV) and the MariClim project 165112/S30 funded by the Research Council of Norway. We would like to thanks Dr J. Dolan for his help in editing the manuscript and Dr. M. Greenacre for his comments and suggestions on statistics.

Ethical standard

This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

300_2015_1725_MOESM1_ESM.tiff (466 kb)
Figure S1 Population structure (ind/m3) and depth distribution of the three species of Calanus over the transect Coast-Kongsfjorden. (TIFF 466 kb)
300_2015_1725_MOESM2_ESM.tiff (910 kb)
Figure S2 Temperature (°C), salinity (psu) and fluorescence (arbitrary units) transects from Kongsfjorden to offshore station in April 2006. (TIFF 910 kb)
300_2015_1725_MOESM3_ESM.tif (167 kb)
Figure S3 Temperature (°C), salinity (psu) and fluorescence (arbitrary units) transects from Kongsfjorden to offshore station in June 2006. (TIFF 166 kb)
300_2015_1725_MOESM4_ESM.tiff (924 kb)
Figure S4 Temperature (°C), salinity (PSU) and fluorescence transects (arbitrary units) from Kongsfjorden to offshore station in August 29, 2006. No fluorescence could be detected below 100 m. (TIFF 924 kb)
300_2015_1725_MOESM5_ESM.tif (110 kb)
Figure S5 Hierarchical cluster analyses using factor score from Correspondence Analysis with total polar lipid fatty acids for all sites, seasons, stages and years. Analysis based on data set from Falk-Petersen et al. (2009) and present data. Sites: AO = Arctic Ocean, V6 = offshore station, KGF = Kongsfjorden, FSW = Fram Strait west, NB = North Bering Sea, HB = . Seasons: Spri = spring, Sum = summer, Aut = autumn, Wint = winter. Stages: F = adult females, Cn = copepodite stage n. Years: 0X = 200X, 75 = 1975, 86 = 1986, 89 = 1989. (TIFF 110 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Mayzaud
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • S. Falk-Petersen
    • 3
    • 4
  • M. Noyon
    • 1
    • 2
    • 6
  • A. Wold
    • 4
    • 5
  • M. Boutoute
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratoire d’Océanographie de Villefranche, UMR 7093UPMC Université Paris 06Villefranche-Sur-MerFrance
  2. 2.CNRS, UMR 7093, LOVVillefranche-Sur-MerFrance
  3. 3.Akvaplan-nivaFram CentreTromsøNorway
  4. 4.Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and EconomicsUniversity of TromsøTromsøNorway
  5. 5.Norwegian Polar InstituteFram CentreTromsøNorway
  6. 6.Department of Biological Sciences, Marine Research InstituteUniversity of Cape TownCape TownSouth Africa

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