Biosurfactant production by Arctic and Antarctic bacteria growing on hydrocarbons
- 437 Downloads
The risk of hydrocarbon contamination in marine polar areas is constantly increasing. Autochthonous bacteria, due to their ability to cope and survive under extreme environmental conditions, can play a fundamental role in the hydrocarbon degradation. The degradation process is often enhanced by the production of biosurfactant molecules. The present study reports for the first time on the isolation of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from Arctic and Antarctic shoreline sediments. A total of 199 psychrotolerant bacterial isolates were obtained from hydrocarbon-amended (with crude or diesel oil) microcosms. A total of 18 isolates were selected for their ability to grow in the presence of crude oil and produce biosurfactants, as it was revealed by the production of good E24 values (≥50 %) and/or reduction in the surface tension (under 30 mN/m). The positive response of the isolates to both tests suggests a possible production of biosurfactants with emulsifying and interfacial activities. Biosurfactant-producing isolates were mainly affiliated to the genera Rhodococcus (14 isolates), followed by Pseudomonas (two isolates), Pseudoalteromonas (one isolate) and Idiomarina (one isolate). Thin-layer chromatography of biosurfactant crude extracts revealed that the majority of the selected isolates were able to produce glycolipidic surfactants. Our results enlarge the knowledge, which is still poor and fragmentary, on biosurfactant producers from polar areas and indicate marine polar sediments as a source of bacteria with potential applications in the remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated cold environments.
KeywordsArctic and Antarctic sediment Biosurfactants Hydrocarbons Bacterial isolates
ALG wishes to thank the Antarctic Project “Limnopolar” (POL2006-06635) funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology, and all colleagues at the Byers camp for their logistic and friendly support to Luigi Michaud during his stay. RM wishes to thank all the colleagues at the Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), Germany, for assistance and support during her stay in their lab. This research was supported by grants by the project PolyArc (grant number ARCFAC-026129-2008-70) and the National Antarctic Museum (MNA).
- Coelho J, Rivonkar CU, Bhavesh NS, Jothi M, Sagodkar UM (2003) Biosurfactant production by the quinoline degrading marine bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain GU 104, and its effect on the metabolism of green mussel Perna viridis L. Indian J Mar Sci 32:202–207Google Scholar
- Desai JD, Banat IM (1997) Microbial production of surfactants and their commercial potential. Microbiol Mol Biol R 61:47–64Google Scholar
- Husain DR, Goutx M, Acquaviva M, Gilewicz M, Bertrand JC (1997) The effect of temperature on eicosane substrate uptake modes by a marine bacterium Pseudomonas nautica strain 617: relationship with the biochemical content of cells and supernatants. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 13:587–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Putheti RR, Patil MC (2009) Pharmaceutical formulation development of floating and swellable sustained drug delivery systems: a review. EJ Sci Technol 4:1–12Google Scholar
- Satpute SK, Bhawsar BD, Dhakephalkar PK, Chopade BA (2008) Assessment of different screening methods for selecting biosurfactant producing marine bacteria. Indian J Mar Sci 37:243–250Google Scholar
- Schulz D, Passeri A, Schmidt M, Lang S, Wagner F, Wray V, Gunkel W (1991) Marine biosurfactants, I. Screening for biosurfactants among crude oil degrading marine microorganisms from the North Sea. Z Naturforsch 46:197–203Google Scholar
- Syldatk C, Lang S, Wagner F, Wray V, Witte L (1985) Chemical and physical characterization of four interfacial-active rhamnolipids from Pseudomonas spec. DSM 2874 grown on n-alkanes. Z Naturforsch 40:51–60Google Scholar
- Yakimov MM, Gentile G, Bruni V, Cappello S, D’Auria G, Golyshin PN, Giuliano L (2004) Crude oil-induced structural shift of coastal bacterial communities of Rod Bay (Terra Nova Bay, Ross Sea) and characterization of cultured cold-adapted hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 49:419–432CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar