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Polar Biology

, Volume 38, Issue 9, pp 1461–1481 | Cite as

Inter-annual variability of summer mesozooplankton communities of the western Chukchi Sea: 2004–2012

  • Elizaveta A. ErshovaEmail author
  • Russell R. Hopcroft
  • Ksenia N. Kosobokova
Original Paper

Abstract

The Chukchi Sea shelf is a complex transition zone between the Pacific and Arctic Oceans, on which climate variation may have a profound impact. We examined summer zooplankton community structure of the western Chukchi Sea in Alaskan and Russian waters during 2004, 2009, 2010 and 2012 within the ongoing Russian-American Long-term Census of the Arctic program. The four study years were very different both in water mass properties and in zooplankton community structure. A “warm” year with an early ice retreat and highest water temperatures occurred in 2004, whereas the years 2009–2012 were “cold” with a later-than-average ice retreat and colder average water temperatures during the sampling period. The extent and prominence of different water masses (Bering Sea–Anadyr Water, Alaska Coastal Current, Siberian Coastal Current, Resident Chukchi Water) within the Chukchi Sea varied between years, which was in turn reflected within the zooplankton communities. Community structure was highly correlated with water mass properties, with bottom temperature being the most significant factor influencing communities. The “cold” summers of 2009–2012 had nearly twice the biomass and abundance of zooplankton compared with the “warm” summer of 2004. Biomass was dominated by the large copepod Calanus glacialis believed to originate from the Bering Sea, and abundance was dominated by small shelf species of copepods, such as Pseudocalanus spp., Acartia spp. and Oithona similis. We discuss the implications of the inter-annual variability of planktonic communities within the Chukchi Sea and the possible effects of longer-term climate change.

Keywords

Chukchi Sea Mesozooplankton assemblages Climate change Pelagic ecosystems 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Kathy Crane of NOAA for continuing support of the RUSALCA program, Marshall Swartz and Robert Pickart for providing physical oceanographic data, Terry Whitledge for providing chlorophyll values, and the crew and scientists of RV “Professor Khromov” for various logistical support. We also thank three anonymous reviewers for providing helpful comments on improving the manuscript. This publication is the result in part of research sponsored by the Cooperative Institute for Alaska Research with funds from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration under cooperative agreements NA17RJ1224, NA13OAR4320056 and NA08OAR4320870 with the University of Alaska. Partial support for E.A.E. was also provided by the UAF Center for Global Change Student Research Award with funding from CIFAR 2008–2014 cooperative agreement NA08OAR4320751. The work of K.N.K. and E.A.E. was also partially supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research under Grant 13-04-00551 and Russian Scientific Foundation Grant No. 14-50-00095.

Supplementary material

300_2015_1709_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (18.4 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 18854 kb)
300_2015_1709_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (24.5 mb)
Supplementary material 2 (PDF 25138 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elizaveta A. Ershova
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Russell R. Hopcroft
    • 1
  • Ksenia N. Kosobokova
    • 2
  1. 1.University of Alaska FairbanksFairbanksUSA
  2. 2.Shirshov Institute of OceanologyRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussian Federation

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