Environmental salinity-modified osmoregulatory response in the sub-Antarctic notothenioid fish Eleginops maclovinus
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In this study we assessed changes in the osmoregulatory system of juvenile sub-Antarctic Eleginops maclovinus submitted to different environmental salinities (5, 15, 32 and 45 psu) using two different acclimation trials: (1) an end-point experiment (exposure for 14 days) and (2) a time course experiment (specimens were sampled on days 1, 3, 7 and 14 post-transfer). Plasma osmolality, cortisol and metabolites (glucose, lactate and protein) values as well as Na+, K+-ATPase (NKA) activity were assessed in several osmoregulatory tissues (gills, kidney and intestine). In both trials, acclimation to different environmental salinities for 14 days induced changes in plasma metabolites (glucose, lactate and proteins) as well as cortisol values related to salinity challenges. Plasma osmolality and gill NKA activity presented a direct and positive relationship with respect to environmental salinity, while kidney NKA activity showed a “U-shaped” relationship. Anterior intestinal NKA activity increased in response to environmental salinity and apparently did not change in the middle portion of this organ, while it was enhanced in the posterior portion in environmental salinities different than seawater. Plasma metabolite values increased under hypo- and hypersaline conditions, indicating the importance of these energy substrates in extreme environments. The time course study revealed that specimens of E. maclovinus are able to accommodate their osmotic and metabolic system to respond to osmoregulatory challenges by allostatic changes.
KeywordsCortisol Eleginops maclovinus Na+ K+-ATPase activity Osmoregulatory organs Salinity
This study was carried out in the framework of FONDECYT Project 1110235. We thank Dr. Lafayette Eaton and Mr. Ignacio Ruiz-Jarabo (Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Universidad de Cádiz, España) for their help checking this manuscript and the Dirección de Investigación of the Universidad Austral de Chile (DID).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.
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