Advertisement

Polar Biology

, Volume 38, Issue 1, pp 67–73 | Cite as

Effect of light and food on the metabolism of the Arctic copepod Calanus glacialis

  • Nathalie Morata
  • Janne E. Søreide
Original Paper

Abstract

Reduction in sea-ice thickness and cover is expected to lead to earlier underwater light penetration and thus earlier onset of the spring bloom and a longer open water production in the Arctic. The goal of this study was to understand how these climate-induced changes in light and food regimes may impact the key zooplankton grazer Calanus glacialis CV. We studied this copepod’s metabolic response to starvation (filtered sea water; FSW) and algal food (Food) under two different light regimes (light vs. dark) when it was in dormancy (diapause) in winter (November) and active in summer (July). Respiration was measured as indicator of metabolism and was measured for 9 days for copepods exposed to: Dark+FSW, Dark+Food, Light+FSW and Light+Food. The in situ respiration in winter was three times lower than in summer. In winter, light was the main factor to increase the copepod’s metabolism to a level comparable with that of active copepods in summer, but respiration only remained high if food was present. In summer, it was the combined effect of light and Food that increased the respiration, although Food seemed more important than light with time. Copepods reduced their metabolism with time when food was absent, regardless of the light regime, probably preparing for diapause. These results suggest that C. glacialis can quickly adapt to a changing light and food regime in the Arctic, being able to wake up from diapause if light and thus food appear and postpone its diapause if the food availability is still favorable.

Keywords

Respiration Diapause Svalbard Feeding experiment Zooplankton Climate change 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We want to thank M. Daase, B. Niehoff, K. Bluhme and M. Graeve for their valuable help prior to and during the experiment in 2009, as well as H. C. Eilertsen for providing us with algal cultures. This study was funded by the projects CLEOPATRA I and II: Climate effects on food quality and trophic transfer in the Arctic marginal ice zone (Research Council of Norway, project numbers 178766/S30 and 216537) and Kellfrid og Helge fond (University of Tromsø to NM) and is a contribution to the Arctos Network and ANR-ECOTAB project (11 PDOC 018 01 to NM).

References

  1. Arnkvaern G, Daase M, Eiane K (2005) Dynamics of coexisting Calanus finmarchicus, Calanus glacialis and Calanus hyperboreus populations in a high-Arctic fjord. Polar Biol 28:528–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arrigo K, van Dijken G, Pabi S (2008) Impact of a shrinking Arctic ice cover on marine primary production. Geophys Res Lett 35:L19603Google Scholar
  3. Bamstedt U, Tande KS (1985) Respiration and excretion rates of Calanus glacialis in arctic waters of the Barents Sea. Mar Biol 87:259–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blachowiak-Samolyk K, Søreide JE, Kwasniewski S, Sundfjord A, Hop H, Falk-Petersen S, Hegseth EN (2008) Hydrodynamic control of mesozooplankton abundance and biomass in northern Svalbard waters (79–81°N). Deep-Sea Res II 55:2210–2224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Comiso JC, Parkinson CL, Gersten R, Stock L (2008) Accelerated decline in the Arctic sea ice cover. Geophys Res Lett 35:L01703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Conover R (1988) Comparative life histories in the genera Calanus and Neocalanus in high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. Hydrobiologia 167:127–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Engelsen O, Hegseth EN, Hop H, Hansen E, Falk-Petersen S (2002) Spatial variability of chlorophyll-a in the Marginal Ice Zone of the Barents Sea, with relations to sea ice and oceanographic conditions. J Mar Syst 35:79–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Falk-Petersen S, Mayzaud P, Kattner G, Sargent J (2009) Lipids and life strategy of Arctic Calanus. Mar Biol Res 5:18–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gabrielsen TM, Merkel B, Søreide JE, Johansson-Karlsson E, Bailey A, Vogedes D, Nygård H, Varpe Ø, Berge J (2012) Potential misidentifications of two climate indicator species of the marine arctic ecosystem: Calanus glacialis and C. finmarchicus. Polar Biol 35:1621–1628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gough WA, Cornwell AR, Tsuji LJS (2004) Trends in seasonal sea ice duration in southwestern Hudson Bay. Arct Alp Res 57:299–305Google Scholar
  11. Hagen W (1999) Reproductive strategies and energetic adaptations of polar zooplankton. Invertebr Reprod Dev 36:25–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hagen W, Auel H (2001) Seasonal adaptations and the role of lipids in oceanic zooplankton. Zool Anal Complex Syst 104:313–326Google Scholar
  13. Hernandez-Leon S, Ikeda T (2005) A global assessment of mesozooplankton respiration in the ocean. J Plankton Res 27:153–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hind A, Gurney SC, Heath M, Bryant AD (2000) Overwintering strategies in Calanus finmarchicus. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 193:95–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hirche HJ (1983) Overwintering of Calanus finmarchicus and Calanus helgolandicus. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 11:281–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hirche HJ (1996) Diapause in the marine copepod, Calanus finmarchicus—a review. Ophelia 44:129–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hirche HJ, Kattner G (1993) Egg production and lipid content of Calanus glacialis in Spring—indication of a food dependent and food independent reproductive mode. Mar Biol 117:615–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hirche H, Mumm N (1992) Distribution of dominant copepods in the Nansen Basin, Arctic-Ocean, in Summer. Deep-Sea Res I 39:485–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Holm-Hansen O, Riemann B (1978) Chlorophyll-a determination: improvements in methodology. Oikos 30:438–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ikeda T, Skjoldal HR (1989) Metabolism and elemental composition of zooplankton from the Barents Sea during early Arctic summer. Mar Biol 100:173–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ikeda T, Kano Y, Ozaki K, Shinada A (2001) Metabolic rates of epipelagic marine copepods as a function of body mass and temperature. Mar Biol 139:587–596Google Scholar
  22. Kahru M, Brotas W, Manzano-Sarabia M, Mitchel BG (2011) Are phytoplankton blooms occurring earlier in the Arctic? Glob Chang Biol 17:1722–1739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kosobokova KN (1999) The reproductive cycle and life history of the Arctic copepod Calanus glacialis in the White Sea. Polar Biol 22:254–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lee RF, Hagen W, Kattner G (2006) Lipid storage in marine zooplankton. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 307:273–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Leu E, Falk-Petersen S, Kwasniewski S, Wulff A, Edvardsen K, Hessen DO (2006) Fatty acid dynamics during the spring bloom in a High Arctic fjord: importance of abiotic factors versus community changes. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 63:2760–2779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Leu E, Wiktor J, Soreide JE, Berge J, Falk-Petersen S (2010) Increased irradiance reduces food quality of sea ice algae. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 411:49–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Leu E, Søreide JE, Hessen DO, Falk-Petersen S, Berge J (2011) Consequences of changing sea ice cover for primary and secondary producers in the European Arctic shelf seas: timing, quantity, and quality. Prog Oceanog 90:18–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Maps F, Plourde S, Zakardjian B (2010) Control of dormancy by lipid metabolism in Calanus finmarchicus: a population model test. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 403:165–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Miller CB, Crain JA, Morgan CA (2000) Oil storage variability in Calanus finmarchicus. ICES J Mar Sci 57:1786–1799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Perrette M, Yool A, Quartly GD, Popova EE (2011) Near-ubiquity of ice-edge blooms in the Arctic. Biogeosciences 8:515–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Polyakov IV, Timokov LA, Alexeev VA, Bacon S, Dimitrenko IA, Fortier L, Frolov IE, Gascard J-C, Hansen E, Ivanov VV et al (2010) Arctic Ocean warming contributes to reduced Polar ice cap. J Phys Oceanogr 40:743–756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Renaud PE, Riedel A, Michel C, Morata N, Gosselin M, Juul-Pedersen T, Chiuchiolo A (2007) Seasonal variation in benthic community oxygen demand: a response to an ice algal bloom in the Beaufort Sea, Canadian Arctic? J Mar Syst 67:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rothrock DA, Yu Y, Maykut GA (1999) Thinning of the Arctic sea-ice cover. Geophys Res Lett 26:3469–3472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Seuthe L, Darnis G, Wexels Riser C, Wassmann P, Fortier L (2007) Winter–spring feeding and metabolism of Arctic copepods: insights from faecal pellet production and respiration measurements in the southeastern Beaufort Sea. Polar Biol 30:427–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Søreide JE, Falk-Petersen S, Hegseth EN, Hop H, Carroll ML, Hobson KA, Blachowiak-Samolyk K (2008) Seasonal feeding strategies of Calanus in the high-Arctic Svalbard region. Deep-Sea Res II 55:2225–2244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Søreide JE, Leu E, Berge J, Graeve M, Falk-Petersen S (2010) Timing of blooms, algal food quality and Calanus glacialis reproduction and growth in a changing Arctic. Glob Chang Biol 16:3154–3163Google Scholar
  37. Stroeve JC, Kattsov V, Barrett A, Serreze M, Pavlova T, Holland M, Meier WN (2012) Trends in Arctic sea ice extent from CMIP5, CMIP3 and observations. Geophys Res Lett 39:L16502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Takahashi K, Nagao N, Taguchi S (2002) Respiration of adult female Calanus hyperboreus (Copepoda) during spring in the North Water Polynya. Polar Biosci 15:45–51Google Scholar
  39. Varpe Ø, Jørgensen C, Tarling GA, Fiksen Ø (2009) The adaptive value of energy storage and capital breeding in seasonal environments. Oikos 118:363–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wassmann P, Duarte CM, Agusti A, Sejr M (2011) Footprints of climate change in the Arctic marine ecosystem. Glob Chang Biol 17:1235–1429CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.LEMAR CNRS UMR 6539University of Western BrittanyPlouzanéFrance
  2. 2.Department of Arctic and Marine BiologyUniversity of TromsøTromsøNorway
  3. 3.The University Centre in SvalbardLongyearbyenNorway

Personalised recommendations