Evidence for a pan-Arctic sea-ice diatom diet in Strongylocentrotus spp
- 221 Downloads
The Arctic marine food web is based on organic matter produced by both phytoplankton and sea-ice algae. With the decline of Arctic sea ice, the sustained availability of organic carbon of sea-ice origin is unclear. Recently, the detection of the sea-ice diatom biomarker IP25 in a range of Arctic benthic macrofauna indicated that this is a highly suitable biomarker for the identification of organic carbon derived from sea-ice primary production in Arctic food webs. However, the data presented previously were restricted to a single geographical region in the Canadian Arctic. Here, we show that IP25 is present in sea urchins of the genus Strongylocentrotus collected from ten locations with seasonal sea-ice cover from the Canadian Archipelago, Greenland and Spitsbergen. In contrast, IP25 was not found in specimens of Echinus esculentus collected from the southwest UK, where sea ice is absent. Our findings provide evidence that the presence of IP25 in macrobenthic organisms can be used across different Arctic regions as a versatile indicator of a diet containing carbon of sea-ice origin.
KeywordsIP25 Highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) Arctic Food web Macrobenthos Strongylocentrotus
We thank the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC, UK) (NE/D013216/1) and the Seale-Hayne Educational Trust for funding part of this work. Partial operating funds for the CCGS Amundsen were provided by the International Joint Ventures Fund of the Canada Foundation for Innovation. We would like to thank Ms. V. Roy and the Canadian Healthy Oceans Network (CHONe), ArcticNet and Circumpolar Flaw Lead System study (CFL) and the CCGS Amundsen officers and crew for supplying Strongylocentrotus sp. urchins from the Canadian Arctic as well as Dr H. Findlay at Plymouth Marine Laboratories for supplying Strongylocentrotus sp. urchins from Kongsfjorden obtained as part of the European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA) with received funding from the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007–2013) under grant agreement n° 211384. We also thank Paul Renaud and an anonymous reviewer for their helpful suggestions on improving this manuscript.
- Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) (2004) Impacts of a warming Arctic: Arctic climate impact and assessment. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- Brown TA, Belt ST, Philippe B, Mundy CJ, Massé G, Poulin M, Gosselin M (2011) Temporal and vertical variations of lipid biomarkers during a bottom ice diatom bloom in the Canadian Beaufort Sea: further evidence for the use of the IP25 biomarker as a proxy for spring Arctic sea ice. Polar Biol 34:1857–1868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Forest A, Tremblay J-É, Gratton Y, Martin J, Gagnon J, Darnis G, Sampei M, Fortier L, Ardyna M, Gosselin M, Hattori H, Nguyen D, Maranger R, Vaqué D, Marrasé C, Pedrós-Alió C, Sallon A, Michel C, Kellogg C, Deming J, Shadwick E, Thomas H, Link H, Archambault P, Piepenburg D (2011) Biogenic carbon flows through the planktonic food web of the Amundsen Gulf (Arctic Ocean): a synthesis of field measurements and inverse modeling analyses. Prog Oceanogr. doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2011.05.002 Google Scholar
- Gagnon J-M, Gilkinson KD (1994) Discrimination and distribution of the sea urchins Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (O.F. Müller) and S. pallidus (G.O. Sars) in the North-west Atlantic. Sarsia 79:1–11Google Scholar
- Gerland S, Haas C, Nicolaus M, Winther J-G (2004) Seasonal development of structure and optical surface properties of fast ice in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. Ber Polarforsch 492:26–34Google Scholar
- Gilkinson KD, Gagnon J-M, Schneider DC (1988) The sea urchin Strongylocentrotus pallidus (G.O. Sars) on the Grand Bank of Newfoundland. In: Burke RD, Mladenov PV, Lampert P (eds) Echinoderm biology. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 467–473Google Scholar
- Jensen M (1974) The Strongylocentrotidae (Echinoidea), a morphologic and systematic study. Sarsia 57:113–148Google Scholar
- Mundy CJ, Gosselin M, Ehn J, Gratton Y, Rossnagel A, Barber DG, Martin J, Tremblay J-E, Palmer M, Arrigo KR, Darnis G, Fortier L, Else B, Papakyriakou T (2009) Contribution of under-ice primary production to an ice-edge upwelling phytoplankton bloom in the Canadian Beaufort Sea. Geophys Res Lett 36:L17601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ruppert EE, Fox RS, Barnes RD (2004) Invertebrate zoology 7th edn. Brooks/Cole Thompson Learning, BelmontGoogle Scholar
- Sun M-Y, Clough LM, Carroll ML, Dai J, Ambrose WG Jr, Lopez GR (2009) Different responses of two common Arctic macrobenthic species (Macoma balthica and Monoporeia affinis) to phytoplankton and ice algae: will climate change impacts be species specific? J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 376:110–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wang M, Overland JE (2009) A sea ice free summer Arctic within 30 years? Geophys Res Lett 36:2–6Google Scholar