Polar Biology

, Volume 35, Issue 7, pp 1013–1026 | Cite as

Tardigrada of the Revdalen (Spitsbergen) with the descriptions of two new species: Bryodelphax parvuspolaris (Heterotardigrada) and Isohypsibius coulsoni (Eutardigrada)

  • Łukasz Kaczmarek
  • Krzysztof Zawierucha
  • Jerzy Smykla
  • Łukasz Michalczyk
Open Access
Original Paper

Abstract

Despite a century long history of research, tardigrade fauna of the Svalbard Archipelago remains poorly known. In order to deepen our knowledge of tardigrade biodiversity in the Arctic, we collected forty-one moss and lichen samples from the Revdalen and on the south-east slopes of the Rotjesfjellet (Spitsbergen, Svalbard Archipelago) in June 2010. In these samples, twenty-five tardigrade species were found, including two new for science: Bryodelphax parvuspolaris sp. nov. and Isohypsibius coulsoni sp. nov. B. parvuspolaris sp. nov. belongs to the weglarskae group but differs from all other species of the group by a unique configuration of ventral plates. I. coulsoni sp. nov. differs from the most similar species I. ceciliae Pilato and Binda, 1987 mainly by the absence of ventral sculpture. Two additional species, Milnesium asiaticum Tumanov, 2006 and Diphascon (Adropion) prorsirostre Thulin, 1928, are recorded from the Svalbard Archipelago for the first time.

Keywords

Arctic Faunistics New records Tardigrada Taxonomy Biodiversity 

Introduction

Although the first studies on water bears (Tardigrada) of the Svalbard Archipelago took place as early as in the nineteenth century (Scourfield 1897) and were continued by a number of researchers throughout the twentieth century (e.g. Richters 1903, 1904, 1911; Murray 1907; Marcus 1928; Węglarska 1965; Dastych 1985; Pugh and McInnes 1998; Łagisz 1999), our knowledge about the tardigrade fauna of this region is still relatively poor. The most comprehensive work on Spitsbergen tardigrades (Dastych 1985) provided a complete species list, new records and also investigated the ecology of these microscopic invertebrates. A decade later, Pugh and McInnes (1998) analysed the origin of the Arctic Tardigrada. Other papers were published sporadically, and the majority were limited to reports and descriptions of new species from the Svalbard Archipelago (e.g. Binda et al. 1980; Pilato et al. 1982; Dastych 1983; De Smet et al. 1987, 1988; Pilato and Binda 1987; Van Rompu and De Smet 1988, 1991, 1994; De Smet and Van Rompu 1994; Maucci 1996; Tumanov 2007; Smykla et al. 2011). In the region of Hornsund, studies were previously conducted by Węglarska (1965), Dastych (1985), Maucci (1996), Janiec (1996) and Łagisz (1999). Up to now, only 84 species were recorded from the Svalbard Archipelago, but none specifically from the Revdalen (Coulson 2011).

Here, we provide a list of tardigrades species from the Revdalen, including two new records from the Svalbard Archipelago and descriptions of two species new for science, Bryodelphax parvuspolaris sp. nov. and Isohypsibius coulsoni sp. nov. The genus Bryodelphax consists of only 17 species, but its distribution is global—it has been recorded from the polar regions to tropical rain forests (Kaczmarek and Michalczyk 2004; Kaczmarek et al. 2005; Kristensen et al. 2010; Degma et al. 2011). In contrast, the genus Isohypsibius is one of the largest in the phylum Tardigrada, with more than 130 species and subspecies described from all over the world (McInnes 1994; Degma et al. 2011).

Materials and methods

Moss and lichen samples for this study were collected from the Revdalen and the Rotjesfjellet, which are located on the north coast of Hornsund (Spitsbergen, Svalbard Archipelago; Fig. 1). The total of forty-one moss and lichen samples were collected on the 26th June 2010 from the Revdalen and on the 29th June 2010 from the south-east slopes of the Rotjesfjellet (see Table 1). Twenty-nine (over 70%) of the samples provided a total of 461 specimens and 83 eggs.
Table 1

The list of localities in the Hornsund area, from which samples containing tardigrades were collected

Locality no.

Locality name and coordinates

Plant

Substrate

m asl

I

Northern part of the Revdalen, near the Revvatnet and the Revelva (77°01′29″N; 15°22′39″E)

Moss

Rock

51

II–IV

Northern part of the Revdalen, near the Revvatnet and the Revelva (77°01′41″N; 15°22′21″E)

Moss

Soil

67

V

Northern part of the Revdalen, near the Revvatnet and the Revelva (77°01′41″N; 15°22′21″E)

Moss

Rock

67

VI–VIII

Northern part of the Revdalen, near the Revvatnet and the Revelva (77°01′39″N; 15°22′47″E)

Moss

Rock

76

IX

Northern part of the Revdalen, near the Revvatnet and the Revelva (77°01′34″N; 15°23′12″E)

Moss

Rock

76

X

Northern part of the Revdalen, near the Revvatnet and the Revelva (77°01′26″N; 15°23′30″E)

Moss

Soil

68

XI

Northern part of the Revdalen, near the Revvatnet (southern edge) and the Revelva (77°01′09″N; 15°24′34″E)

Moss

Rock

50

XII–XIII

Northern part of the Revdalen, near the Revvatnet (southern edge) and the Revelva (77°01′09″N; 15°24′34″E)

Moss

Soil

50

XIV

Northern part of the Revdalen, near the Revvatnet (southern edge) and the Revelva (77°01′09″N; 15°24′34″E)

Moss, lichen

Soil

50

XV

The Revdalen, south-east of the Revvatnet and the Revelva (77°00′35″N; 15°28′20″E)

Moss

Soil

36

XVI

The Revdalen, south-east of the Revvatnet and the Revelva (77°00′22″N; 15°29′02″E)

Moss

Soil

29

XVII–XVIII

The Rotjesfjellet, south-east slope (77°00′16″N; 15°24′02″E)

Moss

Soil

50

XIX–XX

The Rotjesfjellet, south-east slope (77°00′19″N; 15°23′55″E)

Moss

Soil

100

XXI–XXII

The Rotjesfjellet, south-east slope (77°00′26″N; 15°23′42″E)

Moss

Soil

201

XXIII

The Rotjesfjellet, south-east slope (77°00′29″N; 15°23′35″E)

Moss

Soil

250

XXIV

The Rotjesfjellet, south-east slope (77°00′31″N; 15°23′21″E)

Moss

Soil

301

XXV

The Rotjesfjellet, south-east slope (77°00′31″N; 15°23′21″E)

Moss, lichen

Soil

301

XXVI–XXVII

The Rotjesfjellet, south-east slope (77°00′35″N; 15°22′58″E)

Moss

Rock

399

XXVIII–XXIX

The Rotjesfjellet, the top (77°00′40″N; 15°22′20″E)

Moss

Rock

437

Fig. 1

The study area: a Svalbard Archipelago b Hornsund, West Spitsbergen, c Revdalen and Rotjesfjellet (maps from Norsk Polarinstitute)

All specimens and eggs were mounted on microscopic slides in Hoyer’s medium and then examined and photographed with a Phase Contrast Microscope (PCM). Species were identified using the key to the World Tardigrada (Ramazzotti and Maucci 1983) and original descriptions from the literature.

All measurements are given in micrometres (μm). Structures were measured only if their orientations were suitable. Body length was measured from the anterior to the posterior end of the body, excluding the hind legs. Measurements of the species used in differential diagnoses are given or calculated according to the original descriptions (i.e. Pilato 1972, 1974; Bertolani et al. 1995; Kristensen et al. 2010). Claws of Isohypsibiuscoulsoni sp. nov. were measured according to Beasley et al. (2008).

In eutardigrades, the pt ratio is the ratio of the length of a given structure to the length of the buccal tube, expressed as a percentage (Pilato 1981). Similarly, to provide relative measurements in echiniscids, the sc ratio of the length of a given structure to the length of the scapular plate is used (e.g. Fontoura and Morais 2011). Both values are always provided in italics, in order to differentiate them from other measurements and ratios.

The configuration of ventral plates in the genus Bryodelphax is described using an analogous system to that used for the description of cuticular gibbosities in some eutardigrades (Michalczyk and Kaczmarek 2010), i.e. a Roman number with a colon at the beginning of the sequence indicates the total number of rows of ventral plates and following Arabic numbers separated by dashes refer to the numbers of plates in each row, starting from the most anterior row.

All the investigated material is preserved in the collection of the first author, at the Department of Animal Taxonomy and Ecology, A. Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland.

Results

Taxonomic accounts of the new species found in the study

Bryodelphax parvuspolaris sp. nov. (Figs. 28; Table 2)

Material examined Holotype (female) (slide 14.2/20) and 8 paratypes (females) (slides: 14.2/4, 14.2/8, 14.2/9, 14.2/12, 14.2/13, 14.2/14, 14.2/16, 14.2/19).

Description (measurements in Table2) Body (Figs. 24) transparent to slightly rose, eyes absent or not visible after the preparation. Apart from the head appendages (cirrus internus and externus and drop-shaped cephalic papillae (secondary clava)), only lateral cirrus A (with clava near the base (primary clava) present).
Table 2

Measurements and sc values of selected morphological structures of nine specimens (including the holotype) from the type population of Bryodelphax parvuspolaris sp. nov.

Character

N

Range

Mean

SD

Holotype

μm

sc

μm

sc

μm

sc

μm

sc

Body length

9

87–125

523556

110

542

11

17

122

546

Scapular plate length

3

16.7–22.3

19.6

2.8

22.3

Head appendages lengths

 Cirrus internus

7

4.4–7.3

22.426.3

5.5

24.3

1.1

2.7

5.0

22.4

 Cephalic papilla

6

2.4–4.0

15.217.9

2.9

16.5

0.6

2.0

4.0

17.9

 Cirrus externus

7

9.0–16.1

52.557.6

11.8

55.0

2.2

3.6

11.7

52.5

 Clava

8

1.4–4.2

14.118.8

2.7

16.5

0.9

3.3

4.2

18.8

 Cirrus A

8

22.9–37.4

144.4164.6

29.9

154.5

5.0

14.3

32.2

144.4

 Cirrus A/Body length ratio

8

21%–32%

27%

5%

26%

 Cirrus int/ext length ratio

7

43%–53%

47%

3%

43%

Claw 4 lengths

 Branch

9

4.5–6.3

26.931.8

5.6

28.6

0.6

2.8

6.0

26.9

 Spur

9

0.7–1.3

3.54.9

0.9

4.4

0.2

0.8

1.1

4.9

 Spur/branch length ratio

9

11%–22%

16%

3%

18%

N number of specimens or structures measured, Range the smallest and the largest structure found among all specimens measured, SD standard deviation, sc ratio of the length of a given structure to the length of the scapular plate, expressed as a percentage

Figs. 2–4

Bryodelphax parvuspolaris sp. nov. habitus. Fig. 2. dorso-lateral view (holotype). Fig. 3. lateral view (paratype). Fig. 4. ventro-lateral view (holotype). Scale in μm, on 3–4 same as on 2

Dorsal plates covered with fine, but distinct dark dots that appear as granulation under PCM, but are in fact cuticular pillars within cuticle (Michalczyk and Kaczmarek 2006, 2007). “Granulation” distinctly larger on the scapular and the terminal plate. In addition to the “granulation”, slightly larger and irregularly distributed pores are visible mainly on the margins of all dorsal plates (Fig. 5). Scapular plate facetted with a median longitudinal fold and a few smaller transverse folds. Paired plates divided into two unequal anterior and posterior parts by a transverse stripe without “granulation”. Median plates 1 and 2 divided, and median plate 3 undivided. Twelve supplementary plates poorly visible near median plates 1–3. The terminal plate facetted with two longitudinal folds.
Figs. 5–7

Bryodelphax parvuspolaris sp. nov. Fig. 5. sculpture on the scapular plate. Fig. 6. ventral plates. Fig. 7. claws III. Scale in μm, on 6 same as on 5

Ventral plates arranged in eight rows: 1 plate in row I (between legs I), 1 plate in row II (between legs I and II), 2 plates in row III (between legs I and II), 2 plates in row IV (between legs II), 2 plates in row V (between legs II and III), 2 plates in row VI (between legs III), 2 plates in row VII (in line with the gonophore) and 1 plate in row VIII (below the gonophore); i.e. the ventral plate configuration VIII:1-1-2-2-2-2-2-1 (Figs 4, 8). All ventral plates with fine and indistinct “granulation” (Fig. 6).
Fig. 8

Configurations of ventral plates in all known species of the Bryodelphax weglarskae group. Roman numbers indicate the rows in which the ventral plates are arranged

Spine on legs I and papilla on legs IV absent or not visible under PCM. Collar on legs IV with poorly developed and irregular teeth. External claws of all legs smooth, internal claws with very small spurs directed downwards (Fig. 7).

Eggs unknown.

Remarks In some specimens, ventral plates are indistinct; thus, an examination of at least several specimens to ensure correct identification is strongly recommended.

Etymology The name ‘parvuspolaris’, meaning ‘a small dweller from the polar regions’, was chosen by the participants of the XXXIII Polar Expedition of the Polish Academy of Sciences, who provided us with logistical support and helped collecting samples from Spitsbergen.

Type locality Hornsund, northern part of the Revdalen, near the Revvatnet and the Revelva, mosses from soil, 67 m asl, 77°01′41″N, 15°22′21″E, 26.06.2010, coll. Łukasz Kaczmarek and Jerzy Smykla.

Type depositories Holotype (slide 14.2/20) and paratypes (slides: 14.2/4, 14.2/8, 14.2/9, 14.2/12, 14.2/13, 14.2/14, 14.2/16, 14.2/19) are deposited at the Department of Animal Taxonomy and Ecology, Institute of Environmental Biology, A. Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznań.

Differential DiagnosisBryodelphax parvuspolaris sp. nov. has ventral plates and thus belongs to the weglarskae group (Kristensen et al. 2010); we therefore only compared other species of this group (see Fig. 8), using the ventral plates and other characters. The new species differs from:
  • B. aaseae Kristensen et al., 2010 by: a different ventral plate configuration (VIII:1-1-2-2-2-2-2-1 in the new species and X:2-1-4-4-2-4-2-1-2-1 in B. aaseae) and the presence of dentate collars on hind legs.

  • B. iohannis Bertolani et al., 1995 by: a different ventral plate configuration (VIII:1-1-2-2-2-2-2-1 in the new species and X:2-1-1-5-2-4-2-2-2-1 in B. iohannis), a slightly smaller body size (87.4–125.0 in the new species and 113.9–179.5 in B. iohannis), and the presence of dentate collars on hind legs.

  • B. sinensis Pilato, 1974 by: a different ventral plate configuration (VIII:1-1-2-2-2-2-2-1 in the new species and VII:2-2-2-2-2-2-1 in B. sinensis), slightly longer lateral appendages A (up to 37.4 in the new species and up to 27.0 in B. sinensis), and the presence of dentate collars hind legs.

  • B. weglarskae Pilato, 1972 by: a different ventral plate configuration (VIII:1-1-2-2-2-2-2-1 in the new species and IX:2-1-5-2-4-2-2-2-1 in B. weglarskae) and by not bifurcated appendages.

Isohypsibius coulsoni sp. nov. (Figs. 913; Table 3)

Material examined Holotype (slide 34.2/29) and 80 paratypes (slides: 31.4/1, 31.4/3, 34.2/6, 34.2/7, 34.2/8, 34.2/9, 34.2/10, 34.2/11, 34.2/12, 34.2/13, 34.2/14, 34.2/15, 34.2/16, 34.2/17, 34.2/18, 34.2/19, 34.2/20, 34.2/21, 34.2/22, 34.2/23, 34.2/24, 34.2/25, 34.2/26, 34.2/28, 34.2/29, 34.2/30, 34.2/31, 34.2/32, 34.2/33, 34.2/34).

Description (measurements in Table3) Body transparent/white, eyes present (in live and mounted animals) in 83% of the examined specimens (Fig. 9). Dorso-lateral cuticle without gibbosities but covered with a reticular pattern (polygons diameter 0.9–3.2) (Fig. 10). Ventral cuticle smooth.
Table 3

Measurements and pt values of selected morphological structures of eleven specimens (including the holotype) from the type population of Isohypsibius coulsoni sp. nov.

Character

N

Range

Mean

SD

Holotype

μm

pt

μm

pt

μm

pt

μm

pt

Body length

11

163–338

6771133

278

893

61

140

336

1,011

Bucco-pharyngeal tube

         

 Buccal tube length

11

24.0–35.1

30.9

3.5

33.2

 Stylet support insertion point

11

15.8–22.9

63.467.0

20.1

65.2

2.2

1.0

21.6

65.1

 Buccal tube external width

11

2.8–4.2

10.913.1

3.7

11.9

0.5

0.7

4.2

12.7

 Buccal tube internal width

11

1.6–2.6

6.27.8

2.1

6.8

0.3

0.4

2.6

7.8

Placoid lengths

         

 Macroplacoid 1

11

2.7–3.7

9.112.5

3.4

11.1

0.3

0.9

3.4

10.2

 Macroplacoid 2

11

2.0–3.3

8.010.1

2.8

9.2

0.4

0.7

3.3

9.9

 Macroplacoid 3

11

2.6–4.7

10.814.4

3.9

12.7

0.6

1.1

3.9

11.7

 Microplacoid

10

1.0–2.2

3.66.3

1.6

5.0

0.4

1.0

2.0

6.0

 Macroplacoid row

11

9.6–14.7

40.043.6

12.8

41.6

1.6

1.2

13.4

40.4

 Placoid row

10

11.7–17.8

46.852.0

15.2

49.2

2.0

1.8

15.9

47.9

Claw I lengths

         

 External base

4

4.7–5.9

15.819.8

5.4

17.9

0.5

2.1

?

?

 External primary branch

5

7.0–12.5

27.336.5

10.2

32.7

2.3

4.2

?

?

 External secondary branch

5

4.8–8.5

19.424.9

6.8

21.8

1.4

2.2

?

?

 Internal base

5

3.7–6.0

15.118.2

5.0

16.4

0.9

1.4

?

?

 Internal primary branch

6

6.5–11.3

23.232.2

8.2

26.6

1.7

3.1

?

?

 Internal secondary branch

6

3.5–6.7

14.121.5

5.6

17.9

1.3

3.0

?

?

Claw II lengths

         

 External base

6

4.9–7.0

15.821.1

5.8

18.4

0.8

2.2

7.0

21.1

 External primary branch

6

9.3–14.2

32.442.8

12.1

38.1

2.2

3.5

14.2

42.8

 External secondary branch

6

4.3–8.6

16.825.3

7.4

23.1

1.6

3.3

8.4

25.3

 Internal base

6

4.0–6.1

14.918.4

5.0

16.1

0.8

1.2

6.1

18.4

 Internal primary branch

7

6.8–12.2

22.534.8

8.9

28.6

2.1

4.9

11.1

33.4

 Internal secondary branch

7

3.8–7.7

14.823.5

6.1

19.5

1.3

3.4

7.7

23.2

Claw III lengths

         

 External base

5

6.0–7.3

18.522.5

6.7

20.3

0.5

1.5

6.7

20.2

 External primary branch

5

12.5–14.9

40.942.6

13.9

42.1

0.9

0.7

14.1

42.5

 External secondary branch

5

7.0–8.8

20.526.5

8.1

24.5

0.7

2.4

8.8

26.5

 Internal base

4

4.2–6.6

16.418.8

5.4

18.1

1.2

1.1

6.1

18.4

 Internal primary branch

5

5.9–11.7

24.635.2

8.6

28.5

2.5

4.3

11.7

35.2

 Internal secondary branch

5

4.2–7.7

15.423.2

5.6

18.6

1.4

2.9

7.7

23.2

Claw IV lengths

         

 Anterior base

5

4.3–6.7

16.722.5

5.7

19.2

1.0

2.5

?

?

 Anterior primary branch

6

10.5–16.0

41.052.3

14.4

47.7

2.0

3.8

?

?

 Anterior secondary branch

6

5.4–8.9

21.129.5

8.0

26.5

1.3

3.1

?

?

 Posterior base

4

4.6–6.0

15.019.1

5.4

16.7

0.6

2.0

?

?

 Posterior primary branch

5

9.9–12.1

32.436.6

11.0

34.2

0.8

1.8

?

?

 Posterior secondary branch

4

6.8–8.1

20.527.2

7.4

23.0

0.5

2.9

?

?

N number of specimens or structures measured, Range the smallest and the largest structure found among all specimens measured, SD standard deviation, pt ratio of the length of a given structure to the length of the buccal tube, expressed as a percentage, ? structure oriented unsuitably for measurement

Figs. 9−10

Isohypsibius coulsoni sp. nov. Fig. 9. habitus (ventral view, holotype). Fig. 10. sculpture on the dorsal cuticle (paratype). Scale in μm

Bucco-pharyngeal apparatus of the Isohypsibius type, without ventral lamina (Fig. 11). Oral cavity armature absent or not visible under PCM. Pharyngeal bulb oval with three macroplacoids and a microplacoid. All macroplacoids without constrictions. Macroplacoid length sequence (smallest-medium-largest): 2-1-3.
Figs. 11–13

Isohypsibius coulsoni sp. nov. Fig. 11. buccal apparatus (ventral view, holotype). Fig. 12. claws III (paratype). Fig. 13. claws IV (paratype). Scale in μm, on 12–13 same as on 11

Claws of the Isohypsibius type, similar in size and shape on all legs (Figs. 12, 13). All main branches with well-developed accessory points. Smooth lunules present on all claws, slightly larger on claws IV. Cuticular bars present under internal claws I–III.

Eggs white, smooth and deposited in exuvium (4–6 eggs per exuvium).

Etymology The new species is named in honour of Dr. Steve Coulson of the Department of Arctic Biology (UNIS) who helped us in collecting tardigrades from Spitsbergen.

Type locality Hornsund, the top of the Rotjesfjellet, mosses from rock, 437 m asl, 77°00′40″N, 15°22′20″E, 29.06.2010. coll. Łukasz Kaczmarek and Jerzy Smykla.

Additional localities Hornsund, south-east slope of the Rotjesfjellet, mosses and lichens from soil, 301 m asl, 77°00′31″N, 15°23′21″E, 29.06.2010. coll. Łukasz Kaczmarek and Jerzy Smykla.

Type depositories Holotype (slide 34.2/29) and 80 paratypes (slides: 34.2/9, 34.2/12, 34.2/13, 34.2/14, 34.2/15, 34.2/16, 34.2/22, 34.2/23, 34.2/25, 34.2/26) are deposited at the Department of Animal Taxonomy and Ecology, Institute of Environmental Biology, A. Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznań.

Differential diagnosisIsohypsibius coulsoni sp. nov. differs from all other known Isohypsibius species with sculptured dorsal cuticle and three macroplacoids in the pharynx by a unique combination of the following characters: the presence of a microplacoid, the absence of cuticular gibbosities and the presence of accessory points on primary branches of all claws. The new species differs from the most similar:
  • Isohypsibius glazovi Biserov, 1999 (known only from Novaya Zemlya) by the absence of the cuticular gibbosities.

  • Isohypsibius ceciliae Pilato and Binda, 1987 (which is also known from Spitsbergen) by: the absence of the reticular sculpture on the ventral side of the body, a distinctly smaller diameter of the reticular mesh on the dorsal cuticle (0.9-3.2 in the new species and about 5.0–6.0 in I. ceciliae) and the absence of the oral cavity armature.

  • Isohypsibius lineatus (Mihelčič, 1969) (known only from Austria) by: a different shape and composition of the reticular sculpture (reticular mesh in the new species and irregular undulating lines in I. lineatus), different macroplacoid length sequence (2-1-3 in the new species and equal lengths in I. lineatus), the presence of accessory points on the primary branches of external claws and the presence of smooth lunules on all claws.

Other tardigrade species recorded from the Revdalen

In total, we found 25 species, including two new to science (described above) and two recorded from the Svalbard Archipelago for the first time (Milnesium asiaticum Tumanov, 2006 and Diphascon (Adropion) prorsirostre Thulin, 1928). All species with notes on their previous records from the Svalbard Archipelago and zoogeographic and taxonomic remarks are listed in Table 4.
Table 4

A list of all species found in the present study with information on previous records from Svalbard and zoogeographic and taxonomic remarks

Species

Previous records in Svalbard

Current study (localities: number of specimens + eggs found)

Remarks

Bryodelphax parvuspolaris sp. nov.

III: 9

New species found in the present study, so far known only from Svalbard

Calohypsibius ornatus (Richters, 1900)

Smeerenburg on Amsterdamøya (Richters 1903); Hornsund (Węglarska 1965); Atomfjella (Dastych 1985)

V: 1

Cosmopolitan (McInnes 1994)

Diphascon (Adropion) prorsirostre Thulin, 1928

III: 3, XIII: 1, XVII: 2, XXIX: 7

The Diphascon (Adropion) prorsirostre complex is cosmopolitan (McInnes 1994); however, the majority of these records need be verified. This is the first official report of this species from Svalbard, as it was mistakenly listed from the Svalbard Archipelago by Coulson (2011), who possibly misread Maucci (1996)

Diphascon (Adropion) scoticum scoticum Murray, 1905

Prins Karls Forland, Recherchefjorden (Murray 1907); Van Mijenfjorden, Bellsund (Richters 1911); Torbjørnsenfjellet region in Hornsund (Węglarska 1965); Bünsow Land, Albert I Land, Atomfjella, Hornsund (Dastych 1985); Semenovfjella (De Smet et al. 1987); Barentsøya (Van Rompu and De Smet 1991); Isbjörnhamna (Janiec 1996); Vesletinden-Dotten (Łagisz 1999)

III: 1

The Diphascon (Adropion) scoticum scoticum complex is cosmopolitan (McInnes 1994); however, the majority of these records need be verified

Diphascon (Diphascon) pingue pingue (Marcus, 1936)

Oscar II Land, Albert I Land, Atomfjella, Hornsund (Dastych 1985); Barentsøya (Van Rompu and De Smet 1991)

XXIX: 1

The pingue group of species is cosmopolitan (McInnes 1994); however, the majority of these records need be verified (Fontoura and Pilato 2007)

Diphascon (Diphascon) recamieri Richters, 1911

Adventfjorden (Richters 1911); Bünsow Land, Albert I Land, Ny-Friesland, Atomfjella, Hornsund (Dastych 1985); Hyrnebeen (De Smet and Van Rompu 1994); Isbjörnhamna (Janiec 1996); Vesletinden-Dotten (Łagisz 1999)

IV: 2, VIII: 2, XII: 2, XXI: 1, XXII: 1, XXIV: 3, XXVI: 2, XXVIII: 2

Holarctic species, recorded from sparse localities in Europe, Asia and North America (McInnes 1994)

Echiniscus merokensis merokensis Richters, 1904

Smeerenburg on Amsterdamøya (Richters 1904); Albert I Land, Haakon VII Land, Andrée Land, Ny-Friesland, Atomfjella, Hornsund (Dastych 1985)

V: 2, XXVIII: 1

Palaearctic (McInnes 1994)

Echiniscus quadrispinosus quadrispinosus Richters, 1902

An unidentified locality on Spitsbergen (Marcus 1928)

V: 1

Cosmopolitan (McInnes 1994)

Echiniscus testudo (Doyère, 1840)

An unidentified locality on Spitsbergen (Richters 1904); Atomfjella (Dastych 1985)

XV: 2, XXIX: 2

Holarctic (McInnes 1994)

Echiniscus wendti Richters, 1903

Smeerenburg on Amsterdamøya (Richters 1903); Hornsund (edge of the Hansbreen) (Węglarska 1965); Wedel Jarlsberg Land, Oscar II Land, Albert I Land, Andrée Land, Ny-Friesland, Atomfjella, Hornsund (Dastych 1985); Isbjörnhamna (Janiec 1996); Tsjebysjovfjellet (Łagisz 1999)

V: 35, IX: 2

Cosmopolitan (McInnes 1994)

Hebesuncus conjungens (Thulin, 1911)

Atomfjella (Dastych 1985); Barentsøya (Van Rompu and De Smet 1991)

V: 4, VI: 1

Cosmopolitan species, recorded from several localities throughout the world (McInnes 1994)

Hypsibius dujardini (Doyère, 1840)

Torbjørnsenfjellet and Ariekammen in Hornsund (Węglarska 1965); Bünsow Land, Ny-Friesland, Atomfjella, Hornsund (Dastych 1985); Smeerenburg (De Smet et al. 1987); Russebukta (De Smet et al. 1988); Bjørnøya (Van Rompu and De Smet 1988); Barentsøya (Van Rompu and De Smet 1991); Isbjörnhamna (Janiec 1996); Kvitgubben (Łagisz 1999)

II: 2, IV: 59, X: 1

This species belongs to the dujardini group of species, which is cosmopolitan (McInnes 1994)

Hypsibius microps Thulin, 1928

Skrål Pynten in the Hornsund area (Maucci 1996)

II: 1, III: 3, V: 2, VI: 4, XIX: 1

This species belongs to the convergens group of species, which is cosmopolitan (McInnes 1994); however, the majority of these records need to verified (Kaczmarek and Michalczyk 2009)

Hypsibius pallidus Thulin, 1911

Rotjesfjellet and Ariekammen in Hornsund (Węglarska 1965); Atomfjella, Hornsund (Dastych 1985); Isbjörnhamna (Janiec 1996); Vesletinden-Dotten (Łagisz 1999)

XXVI: 1

Cosmopolitan (McInnes 1994) (but see also comments to H. microps)

Isohypsibius coulsoni sp. nov.

XXV: 7, XXVIII: 74

New species found in the present study, so far known only from Svalbard

Macrobiotus crenulatus Richters, 1904

Smeerenburg on Amsterdamøya (Richters 1903); Prins Karls Forland (Murray 1907)

X: 1 + 1, XIII: 5 + 1, XV: 3, XX: 2

Holarctic (McInnes 1994)

Macrobiotus harmsworthi harmsworthi Murray, 1907

Prins Karls Forland (Murray 1907); Adventfjorden, Van Mijenfjorden, Bellsund (Richters 1911); Albert I Land, Ny-Friesland, Atomfjella, Hornsund (Dastych 1985); Dotten, Tsjebysjovfjellet, Bastionbreen (Łagisz 1999)

III: 0 + 1, VIII: 1 + 1, VII: 4 + 1, XII: 0 + 3, XIII: 1 + 1, XVII: 0 + 1, XVIII: 0 + 1, XIX: 1 + 5, XIV: 4 + 5, XXIX: 2 + 1

The harmsworthi group of species is cosmopolitan (McInnes 1994)

Macrobiotus harmsworthi obscurus Dastych, 1985

Bünsow Land, Albert I Land, Andrée Land, Atomfjella, Hornsund (Dastych 1985)

VI: 4 + 2, IX: 4 + 9, XI: 9 + 1

Known only from Spitsbergen and Russia (Ural Mts.) (McInnes 1994)

Macrobiotus hufelandi hufelandi Schultze, 1834

Adventfjorden, Isfjorden (Scourfield 1897); Prins Karls Forland, Recherchefjorden (Murray 1907); Van Mijenfjorden, Bellsund (Richters 1911); Torbjørnsenfjellet, Rotjesfjellet and Ariekammen in Hornsund (Węglarska 1965); Bünsow Land and Atomfjella (Dastych 1985); Bjørnøya (Van Rompu and De Smet 1988); Krykkjestupet, Vesletinden-Dotten, Vesletinden (Łagisz 1999)

XIX: 5 + 4, XXI: 2 + 2, XXIV: 4 + 4, XXVI: 14 + 3

The hufelandi group of species is cosmopolitan (McInnes 1994); however, the majority of these records need to be verified (Bertolani and Rebecchi 1993)

Macrobiotus islandicus islandicus Richters, 1904

Prins Karls Forland, Recherchefjorden (Murray 1907); Hornsund (Węglarska 1965); Bünsow Land, Albert I Land, Andrée Land, Ny-Friesland, Atomfjella (Dastych 1985); Vesletinden-Dotten, Kvitgubben (Łagisz 1999)

V: 17 + 9, VII: 5 + 2, XIX: 11 + 9, XI: 4 + 3, XVII: 0 + 1, XXI: 21 and 7

Holarctic (McInnes 1994)

Milnesium asiaticum Tumanov, 2006

IX: 1

Previously known only from the type locality in Kyrgyzstan (Tumanov 2006)

Milnesium eurystomum Maucci, 1991

V: 1

Known only from Greenland and Spitsbergen (Michalczyk et al. 2012)

Platicrista angustata (Murray, 1905)

Prins Karls Forland, Recherchefjorden (Murray 1907); Bünsow Land, Ny-Friesland, Atomfjella, Hornsund (Dastych 1985)

XXI: 2, XXVI: 4

Holarctic species, recorded from many localities in Europe, Asia and North America (McInnes 1994)

Pseudechiniscus suillus (Ehrenberg, 1853)

Prins Karls Forland (Murray 1907); Torbjørnsenfjellet, Rotjesfjellet and Ariekammen in Hornsund (Węglarska 1965); Ny-Friesland, Atomfjella (Dastych 1985); Barentsøya (Van Rompu and De Smet 1991)

III: 4, XVI: 2

The suillus group of species is cosmopolitan, but distribution of nominal species is unknown (McInnes 1994)

Testechiniscus spitsbergensis (Scourfield, 1897)

Adventfjorden (Scourfield 1897); Bünsow Land, Albert I Land, Andrée Land, Ny-Friesland, Atomfjella, Hornsund (Dastych 1985); Barentsøya (Van Rompu and De Smet 1991); Krykkjestupet, Dotten, Vesletinden-Dotten, Vesletinden, Kneikfjellet, Kvitknotten, Sjdanovfjellet, Kvitgubben (Łagisz 1999)

V: 4, XIV: 1, XVIII: 1, XX: 7, XXI: 29, XXII: 1

Holarctic (McInnes 1994)

Notes

Acknowledgments

The material for this work was collected during the XXXIII Polar Expedition of the Polish Academy of Sciences to Svalbard in 2010. The authors would like to thank the whole team of the Polish Research Station “Hornsund” for their hospitality and logistic support. Thanks are also due to the Department of the Polar Research Institute of Geophysics of the Polish Academy of Sciences for providing logistical support during the fieldwork. We are also grateful to Reinhardt M. Kristensen, Sandra J. McInnes, and the third (anonymous) reviewer for their valuable improvements to our manuscript. The research was also partly supported by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education within the programme ‘Supporting International Mobility of Scientists’ edition III, project no. 2 to JS and the National Science Centre grant no. NN304014939 to ŁK, ŁM & JS.

Open Access

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Łukasz Kaczmarek
    • 1
  • Krzysztof Zawierucha
    • 1
  • Jerzy Smykla
    • 2
    • 3
  • Łukasz Michalczyk
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Animal Taxonomy and EcologyA. Mickiewicz UniversityPoznanPoland
  2. 2.Department of Biodiversity, Institute of Nature ConservationPolish Academy of SciencesKrakówPoland
  3. 3.Department of Biology and Marine BiologyUniversity of North Carolina WilmingtonWilmingtonUSA
  4. 4.School of Biological Sciences, University of East AngliaNorwichUK

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