Polar Biology

, Volume 34, Issue 1, pp 49–67 | Cite as

Intra-seasonal variation in foraging behavior among Adélie penguins (Pygocelis adeliae) breeding at Cape Hallett, Ross Sea, Antarctica

  • P. O’B. Lyver
  • C. J. MacLeod
  • G. Ballard
  • B. J. Karl
  • K. J. Barton
  • J. Adams
  • D. G. Ainley
  • P. R. Wilson
Original Paper


We investigated intra-seasonal variation in foraging behavior of chick-rearing Adélie penguins, Pygoscelis adeliae, during two consecutive summers at Cape Hallett, northwestern Ross Sea. Although foraging behavior of this species has been extensively studied throughout the broad continental shelf region of the Ross Sea, this is the first study to report foraging behaviors and habitat affiliations among birds occupying continental slope waters. Continental slope habitat supports the greatest abundances of this species throughout its range, but we lack information about how intra-specific competition for prey might affect foraging and at-sea distribution and how these attributes compare with previous Ross Sea studies. Foraging trips increased in both distance and duration as breeding advanced from guard to crèche stage, but foraging dive depth, dive rates, and vertical dive distances travelled per hour decreased. Consistent with previous studies within slope habitats elsewhere in Antarctic waters, Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) dominated chick meal composition, but fish increased four-fold from guard to crèche stages. Foraging-, focal-, and core areas all doubled during the crèche stage as individuals shifted distribution in a southeasterly direction away from the coast while simultaneously becoming more widely dispersed (i.e., less spatial overlap among individuals). Intra-specific competition for prey among Adélie penguins appears to influence foraging behavior of this species, even in food webs dominated by Antarctic krill.


Adélie penguin Foraging Intra-seasonal competition Pack ice Antarctic krill Antarctic silverfish 



We thank the following persons for planning and field assistance: Peter Dilks, Shulamit Gordon, Rachel Brown and Gus McAlister. Antarctica New Zealand provided extensive logistic support for the NZ Adélie Penguin Program (K122b) through their Latitudinal Gradient Program, while the US Antarctic Program supported members from the US Adélie Penguin Program (B031). This project was funded by the New Zealand Foundation for Research, Science and Technology (C09X0510) and Office of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation (OPP 0125608, 0440643). Draft manuscripts received valuable review from the editor and three anonymous referees. Reference to trade names does not imply endorsement of these products.


  1. Ainley DG (1985) The biomass of birds and mammals in the Ross Sea. In: Siegfried WR, Candy PR, Laws RM (eds) Antarctic nutrient cycles and food webs. Springer, Berlin, pp 498–575Google Scholar
  2. Ainley DG (2002a) The Ross Sea, Antarctica: where all ecosystem processes still remain for study. Mar Ornithol 30:55–62Google Scholar
  3. Ainley DG (2002b) The Adélie penguin: bellwether of climate change. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Ainley DG (2004) Acquiring a base datum of normality for a marine ecosystem: the Ross Sea, Antarctica. CCAMLR document number: WG-EMM-04/20. HobartGoogle Scholar
  5. Ainley DG, Boekelheide RJ (1990) Seabirds of the Farallon Islands: ecology, dynamics, and structure of an upwelling-system community. Stanford University Press, USAGoogle Scholar
  6. Ainley DG, Jacobs SS (1981) Affinity of seabirds for ocean and ice boundaries in the Antarctic. Deep-Sea Res 28A:1173–1185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ainley DG, O’Conner EF, Boekelheide RJ (1984) The marine ecology of birds in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Ornithol Mono 32:97Google Scholar
  8. Ainley DG, Wilson PR, Barton KJ, Ballard G, Nur N, Karl B (1998) Diet and foraging effort of Adélie penguins in relation to pack-ice conditions in the southern Ross Sea. Polar Biol 20:311–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ainley DG, Ballard G, Barton KJ, Karl BJ, Rau GH, Ribic CA, Wilson PR (2003) Spatial and temporal variation of diet within a presumed metapopulation of Adélie penguins. Condor 105:95–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ainley DG, Ribic CA, Ballard G, Heath S, Gaffney I, Karl BJ, Barton KJ, Wilson PR, Webb S (2004) Geographic structure of Adélie penguin populations: overlap in colony-specific foraging areas. Ecol Mono 74:159–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ainley DG, Toniolo V, Ballard G, Barton K, Eastman J, Karl B, Focardi S, Kooyman G, Lyver P, Olmastroni S, Stewart BS, Testa JW, Wilson P (2006) Managing ecosystem uncertainty: critical habitat and dietary overlap of top-predators in the Ross Sea. CCAMLR document EMM 06–07. HobartGoogle Scholar
  12. Ainley DG, Ballard G, Blight LK, Ackley S, Emslie SD, Lescroël A, Olmastroni S, Townsend SE, Tynan CT, Wilson P, Woehler E (2009) Impacts of cetaceans on the structure of southern ocean food webs. Mar MammSci. doi:  10.1111/j.1748-7692.2009.00337.x
  13. Ainley DG, Russell J, Jenouvrier S, Woehler E, Lyver POB, Fraser WR, Kooyman GL (2010) Antarctic penguin response to habitat change as earth’s troposphere reaches 2°C above pre-industrial levels. Ecol Mono 80:49–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ashmole NP, Ashmole MJ (1967) Comparative feeding ecology of sea birds of a tropical oceanic island. Peabody Museum. Yale University, Bulletin 24, 131Google Scholar
  15. Azzali M, Leonori I, De Felice A, Russo A (2006) Spatial–temporal relationships between two euphausiid species in the Ross Sea. Chem and Ecol 22(Suppl 1):219–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ballance LT, Ainley DG, Hunt GL Jr (2001) Seabird foraging ecology. In: Steele J, Thorpe S, Turekian K (eds) Encyclopedia of ocean sciences. Academic Press, London, pp 2636–2644Google Scholar
  17. Ballance LT, Ainley DG, Ballard G, Barton K (2009) An energetic correlate between colony size and foraging effort in seabirds, an example of the Adélie penguin Pygoscelis adeliae. J Avian Biol 40:279–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ballard G (2010) Biotic and physical forces as determinants of Adélie penguin population location and size. Ph. D. thesis. University of Auckland, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  19. Ballard G, Ainley DG, Ribic CA, Barton KJ (2001) Effect of instrument attachment and other factors on foraging trip duration and nesting success of Adélie penguins. Condor 103:481–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ballard G, Ainley DG, Barton KJ, Lescroël A, Toniolo V, Lyver P, Wilson PR (2006) The influence of competition and physical processes on penguin foraging strategies: a study of Adélie penguins at three colonies of radically different size. 6th international penguin conference, 3–7 Sept 2006, HobartGoogle Scholar
  21. Ballard G, Dugger KM, Nur N, Ainley DG (2010a) Foraging strategies of Adélie penguins: adjusting body condition to cope with environmental variability. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 405:287–302Google Scholar
  22. Ballard G, Toniolo V, Ainley DG, Parkinson CL, Arrigo KR, Trathan PN (2010b) Responding to climate change: Adélie penguins confront astronomical and ocean boundaries. Ecol 91:2044–2069Google Scholar
  23. Bannasch R, Wilson RP, Culik B (1994) Hydrodynamic aspects of design and attachment of a back-mounted device in penguins. J Exp Biol 194:83–96Google Scholar
  24. Barrera-Oro E (2002) The role of fish in the Antarctic marine food web: differences between inshore and offshore waters in the southern scotia arc and west Antarctic Peninsula. Antarct Sci 14:293–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Baum JK, Worm B (2009) Cascading top-down effects of changing oceanic predator abundances. J Animal Ecol. doi:  10.1111/j.1365-2656.2009.01531.x
  26. BirdLife International (2004) Tracking ocean wanderers: the global distribution of albatrosses and petrels. Results from the global procellariiform tracking workshop, 1–5 Sept 2003, gordon’s bay, South Africa. BirdLife International, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  27. Börger L, Franconi N, De Michele G, Gantz A, Meschi F, Manica A, Lovari S, Coulson T (2006) Effects of sampling regime on the mean and variance of home range size estimates. J Animal Ecol 75:1393–1405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Calenge C (2006) The package adehabitat for the R software: a tool for the analysis of space and habitat use by animals. Ecol Model 197:516–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chapman EW, Ribic CA, Fraser WR (2004) The distribution of seabirds and pinnipeds in marguerite bay and their relationship to physical features during austral winter 2001. Deep Sea Res Part II 51:2261–2278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Clarke J, Manly B, Kerry K, Gardner H, Franchi E, Corsolini S, Focardi S (1998) Sex differences in Adélie penguin foraging strategies. Polar Biol 20:248–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Clarke J, Kerry K, Irvine L, Phillips B (2002) Chick provisioning and breeding success of Adélie penguins at becharvais Island over eight successive seasons. Polar Biol 25:21–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Daunt F, Benvenuti S, Harris MP, Dall’Antonia L, Elston DA, Wanless S (2002) Foraging strategies of the black-legged kittiwake rissa tridactyla at a north sea colony: evidence for a maximum foraging range. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 245:239–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. DeWitt HH (1970) The character of the midwater fish fauna of the Ross Sea, Antarctica. In: Holdgate MW (ed) Antarctic Ecology, vol 1. Academic Press, London, pp 305–314Google Scholar
  34. Donnelly J, Torres JJ, Sutton TT, Simoniello C (2004) Fishes of the eastern Ross Sea, Antarctica. Polar Biol 27:637–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ducklow HW, Baker K, Martinson DG, Quetin LB, Ross RM, Smith RC, Stammerjohn SE, Vernet M, Fraser WR (2007) Marine pelagic ecosystems: the west Antarctic Peninsula. Phil Trans Royal Soc B 362:67–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Eastman JT, Hubold G (1999) The fish fauna of the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Antarc Sci 11:293–304Google Scholar
  37. Emslie SD, Patterson WP (2007) Abrupt recent shift in δ13C and δ15N values in Adélie penguin eggshell in Antarctica. Proc Nat Acad Sci 104:1666–11669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Endo Y, Asari H, Watanuki Y, Kato A, Kuroki M, Nishikawa J (2002) Biological characteristics of euphausiids preyed upon by Adélie penguins in relation to sea-ice conditions in lutzow-holm bay, Antarctica. Polar Biol 25:730–738Google Scholar
  39. Fieberg J, Kochanny CO (2005) Quantifying home-range overlap: the importance of the utilization distribution. J Wild Manage 69:1346–1359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fischer W, Hureau JC (1985) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes: Southern Ocean, Vols 1, 2. United Nations, FAO, Rome, Italy Google Scholar
  41. Flores H, van Franeker JA, Siegel V, Haraldsson M, Strass V, Meesters EHWG, Bathmann U, Wolff WJ (2009) Antarctic krill species (Crustacea: Euphausiidae) under sea ice and in the open surface layer. In: Flores H (ed) Frozen desert alive. The role of sea ice for pelagic macrofauna and its predators: implications for the Antarctic pack-ice food web. Ponsen and Looien, Germany, pp 155–179Google Scholar
  42. Forcada J, Trathan PN, Reid K, Murphy EJ, Croxall JP (2006) Contrasting population changes in sympatric penguin species in association with climate warming. Global Change Biol 12:411–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Forcada J, Trathan PN, Murphy EJ (2008) Life history buffering in Antarctic mammals and birds against changing patterns of climate and environmental variation. Global Change Biol 14:2473–2488Google Scholar
  44. Fraser WR, Trivelpiece WZ (1996) Factors controlling the distribution of seabirds: winter-summer heterogeneity in the distribution of Adélie penguin populations. Antarct Res Series 70:257–272Google Scholar
  45. Frederiksen M, Wanless S, Harris MP, Rothery P, Wilson LJ (2004) The role of industrial fisheries and oceanographic change in the decline of north sea black-legged kittiwakes. J App Ecology 41:1129–1139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Freitas C, Lydersen C, Fedak MA, Kovacs KM (2008) A simple new algorithm to filter marine mammal Argos locations. Mar Mammal Sci 24:315–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Friedlaender AS, Lawson GL, Halpin PN (2008) Evidence of resource partitioning between humpback and minke whales around the western Antarctic Peninsula. Mar Mammal Sci 25:402–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Georges JY, Guinet C, Jouventin P, Weimerskirch H (1997) Satellite tracking of seabirds: interpretation of activity pattern from the frequency of satellite locations. Ibis 139:403–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Giese M (1996) Effects of human activity on Adélie penguin Pygoscelis adeliae breeding success. Biol Cons 75:157–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Grémillet D, Sue Lewis S, Drapeau L, van Der Lingen CD, Huggett JA, Coetzee JC, Verheye HM, Daunt F, Wanless S, Ryan PG (2008) Spatial match-mismatch in the benguela upwelling zone: should we expect chlorophyll and sea-surface temperature to predict marine predator distributions? J Appl Ecol 45:610–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Halpern BS, Walbridge S, Selkoe KA, Kappel CV, Micheli F, D’Agrosa C, Bruno JF, Casey KS, Ebert C, Fox HE, Fujita R, Heinemann D, Lenihan HS, Madin EMP, Perry MT, Selig ER, Spalding M, Steneck R, Watson R (2008) A Global map of human impact on marine ecosystems. Science 319:948–952CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Hilborn R, Branch TA, Ernst B, Magnusson A, Minte-Vera CV, Scheuerell MD, Valero JL (2003) State of theworld’s fisheries. Annu Rev Environ Resour 28:359–399. doi: 10.1146/ CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hinke JT, Salwicka K, Trivelpiece SG, Watters GM, Trivelpiece WZ (2007) Divergent responses of Pygoscelis penguins reveal a common environmental driver. Oecologia 153:845–855CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Iverson SJ, Springer AM, Kitaysky AS (2007) Seabirds as indicators of food web structure and ecosystem variability: qualitative and quantitative diet analyses using fatty acids. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 352:235–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Jacobs SS (1991) On the nature and significance of the Antarctic slope front. Mar Chem 35:9–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kato A, Ropert-Coudert Y, Naito Y (2002) Changes in Adélie penguin breeding populations in lützow-holm bay, Antarctica, in relation to sea-ice conditions. Polar Biol 25:934–938Google Scholar
  57. Kato A, Watanuki Y, Naito Y (2003) Annual and seasonal changes in foraging site and diving behavior in Adélie penguins. Polar Biol 26:389–395Google Scholar
  58. Leopold A (1949) A sand county almanac. Ballantine, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  59. Lescroël A, Bost C-A (2005) Foraging under contrasting oceanographic conditions: the gentoo penguin at kerguelen archipelago. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 302:245–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lescroël A, Ballard G, Toniolo V, Barton KJ, Wilson PR, Lyver POB, Ainley DG (2010) Working less to gain more: when breeding quality relates to foraging efficiency. Ecol 91:2044–2055Google Scholar
  61. Lewis S, Wanless S, Wright PJ, Harris MP, Bull J, Elston DA (2001) Diet and breeding performance of black-legged kittiwakes rissa tridactyla at a north sea colony. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 221:277–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lishman GS (1985) The food and feeding ecology of Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) and Chinstrap Penguins (P. antarctica) at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands. J Zool 205:245–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. MacLeod CJ, Adams J, Lyver POB (2008) At-sea distribution of satellite-tracked grey-faced petrels, Pterodroma macroptera gouldi, captured on the ruamaahua (Aldermen) Islands, New Zealand. Papers Proc Royal Soc Tas 142:73–88Google Scholar
  64. MathWorks (2007) MATLAB Version 2006. The MathWorks Inc., NatickGoogle Scholar
  65. Murphy RC (1925) Bird islands of Peru: the record of a sojourn on the west coast. G.P. Putnam’s Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  66. Nicholls DG, Robertson CJR, Murray MD (2007) Measuring accuracy and precision for CLS: argos satellite telemetry locations. Notornis 54:137–157Google Scholar
  67. O’Driscoll RL, Macaulay GJ, Gauthier S, Pinkerton M, Hanchet S (2009) Preliminary acoustic results from the New Zealand IPY-CAML survey of the ross sea region in Feb–Mar 2008. CCAMLR document SG-ASAM-09/5. HobartGoogle Scholar
  68. Osterblom HO, Casini M, Olsson O, Bignert A (2006) Fish, seabirds and trophic cascades in the baltic sea. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 323:233–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Osterblom HO, Hansson S, Larsson U, Hjerne O, Wulff F, Elmgren R, Folke C (2007) Human-induced trophic cascades and ecological regime shifts in the baltic sea. Ecosystems 10:877–889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Pauly D, Christiansen V, Dalsgaard J, Froeser R, Torres F Jr (1998) Fishing down marine food webs. Science 279:860–863CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Perry RI, Cury P, Brander K, Jennings S, Möllmann C, Planque B (2009) Sensitivity of marine systems to climate and fishing: Concepts, issues and management responses. J Mar Syst. doi: 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2008.12.017
  72. Puddicombe RA, Johnstone GW (1988) The breeding season diet of Adélie penguins at the vestfold hills, east Antarctica. Hydrobiologia 165:239–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. R Development Core Team (2007) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna. ISBN 3-900051-07-0. url
  74. Ribic CA, Chapman E, Fraser WR, Lawson GL, Wiebe PH (2008) Top predators in relation to bathymetry, ice and krill during austral winter in marguerite bay, Antarctica. Deep Sea Res Part II 55(3–4):485–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rodary D, Wienecke BC, Bost CA (2000) Diving behavior of Adélie penguins (Pycoscelis adeliae) at dumont d’urville, Antarctica: nocturnal patterns of diving and rapid adaptations to changes in sea-ice condition. Polar Biol 23:113–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Sala A, Azzali M, Russo A (2002) Krill of the Ross Sea: distribution, abundance and demography of euphausia superba and euphausia crystallorphias during the Italian Antarctic expedition (Jan–Feb 2000). Sci Mar 66:123–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Salihoglu B, Fraser WR, Hofmann EE (2001) Factors affecting fledging weight of Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis Adeliae) chicks: a modeling study. Polar Biol 24:328–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Smith RC, Domack E, Emslie S, Fraser WR, Ainley DG, Baker K, Kennett J, Leventer A, Mosley-Thompson E, Stammerjohn S, Vernet M (1999) Marine ecosystem sensitivity to historical climate change: Antarctic Peninsula. Bioscience 49:393–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Taki K, Yabuki T, Noiri Y, Hayashi T, Naganobu M (2008) Horizontal and vertical distribution and demography of euphausiids in the Ross Sea and its adjacent waters in 2004/2005. Polar Biol 31:1343–1356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Tremblay Y, Cherel Y (2003) Geographic variation in the foraging behavior, diet and chick growth of rockhopper penguins. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 251:279–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Tremblay Y, Shaffer SA, Fowler SL, Kuhn CE, McDonald BI, Weise MJ, Bost CA, Weimerskirch H, Crocker DE, Goebel ME, Costa DP (2006) Interpolation of animal tracking data in a fluid environment. J Exp Biol 209:128–140CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Van Winkle W (1975) Comparison of several probabilistic home-range models. J Wild Manage 39:118–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wanless S, Harris MP, Redman P, Speakman JR (2005) Low energy values of fish as a probable cause of a major seabird breeding failure in the north sea. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 294:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Watanuki Y, Mori Y, Naito Y (1992) Adélie penguin parental activities and reproduction: effects of device size and timing of its attachment during chick rearing period. Polar Biol 12:539–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Watanuki Y, Kato A, Mori Y, Naito Y (1993) Diving performance of Adélie penguins in relation to food availability in fast sea-ice areas: comparison between years. J Animal Ecol 62:634–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Watanuki Y, Mori Y, Naito Y (1994) Euphausia superb dominates in the diet of Adélie penguins feeding under the sea-ice in the shelf areas of enderby land in summer. Polar Biol 14:429–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Watanuki Y, Kato A, Naito Y, Robertson G, Robinson S (1997) Diving and foraging behavior of Adélie penguins in areas with and without fast sea-ice. Polar Biol 17:296–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Watanuki Y, Miyamoto Y, Kato A (1999) Dive bouts and feeding sites of Adélie penguins rearing chicks in an area with fast sea-ice. Waterbirds 22:120–129Google Scholar
  89. Watermeyer KE, Shannon LJ, Roux JP, Griffiths CL (2008a) Changes in the trophic structure of the southern Benguela before and after the onset of industrial fishing. Afr J Mar Sci 30:351–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Watermeyer KE, Shannon LJ, Roux JP, Griffiths CL (2008b) Changes in the trophic structure of the northern Benguela before and after the onset of industrial fishing. Afr J Mar Sci 30:383–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Weimerskirch H (2001) Seabird demography and its relationship with the marine environment. In: Schreiber EA, Burger J (eds) (2001) Biology of marine birds. CRC Marine Biology Series, 1 pp 115–135Google Scholar
  92. Wilson RP (1984) A new improved stomach pump for penguins and other seabirds. J Field Ornithol 55:109–112Google Scholar
  93. Wilson RP, Wilson M-PTJ (1989) Tape: a package-attachment technique for penguins. Wild Soc Bull 17:77–79Google Scholar
  94. Wilson RP, Grant WS, Duffy DC (1986) Recording devices on free-ranging marine animals: does measurement affect foraging performance? Ecology 67:1091–1093CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wilson RP, Coria NR, Spairani HJ, Adelung D, Culik B (1989) Human-induced behavior in Adélie penguins Pygoscelis adeliae. Polar Biol 10:77–80Google Scholar
  96. Wilson RP, Culik B, Danfeld R, Adelung D (1991) People in Antarctica—how much do Adélie penguins Pygoscelis adeliae care? Polar Biol 11:363–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Wilson RP, Putz K, Peters G, Culik B, Scolaro JA, Charrassin J-B, Ropert-Coudert Y (1997) Long-term attachment of transmitting and recording devices to penguins and other seabirds. Wild Soc Bull 25:101–106Google Scholar
  98. Woehler EJ (1993) The distribution and abundance of Antarctic and Subantarctic. Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, CambridgeGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. O’B. Lyver
    • 1
  • C. J. MacLeod
    • 2
  • G. Ballard
    • 3
    • 4
  • B. J. Karl
    • 1
  • K. J. Barton
    • 5
  • J. Adams
    • 6
  • D. G. Ainley
    • 7
  • P. R. Wilson
    • 8
  1. 1.Landcare ResearchLincolnNew Zealand
  2. 2.Landcare ResearchDunedinNew Zealand
  3. 3.PRBO Conservation SciencePetalumaUSA
  4. 4.Ecology, Evolution, and Behaviour, School of Biological SciencesUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand
  5. 5.Landcare Research, Nelson Mail CentreNelsonNew Zealand
  6. 6.Western Ecological Research CenterUS Geological Survey, Pacific Science CenterSanta CruzUSA
  7. 7.H.T Harvey and AssociatesLos GatosUSA
  8. 8.St Heliers, AucklandNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations