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Polar Biology

, Volume 33, Issue 12, pp 1599–1614 | Cite as

Variability of the microbial community in the western Antarctic Peninsula from late fall to spring during a low ice cover year

  • Sébastien MoreauEmail author
  • Gustavo A. Ferreyra
  • Bernard Mercier
  • Karine Lemarchand
  • Marie Lionard
  • Suzanne Roy
  • Behzad Mostajir
  • Sébastien Roy
  • Bon van Hardenberg
  • Serge Demers
Original Paper

Abstract

Although winter conditions play a major role in determining the productivity of the western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) waters for the following spring and summer, a few studies have dealt with the seasonal variability of microorganisms in the WAP in winter. Moreover, because of regional warming, sea-ice retreat is happening earlier in spring, at the onset of the production season. In this context, this study describes the dynamics of the marine microbial community in the Melchior Archipelago (WAP) from fall to spring 2006. Samples were collected monthly to biweekly at four depths from the surface to the aphotic layer. The abundance and carbon content of bacteria, phytoplankton and microzooplankton were analyzed using flow cytometry and inverted microscopy, and bacterial richness was examined by PCR–DGGE. As expected, due to the extreme environmental conditions, the microbial community abundance and biomass were low in fall and winter. Bacterial abundance ranged from 1.2 to 2.8 × 105 cells ml−1 showing a slight increase in spring. Phytoplankton biomass was low and dominated by small cells (<2 μm) in fall and winter (average chlorophyll a concentration, Chl-a, of, respectively, 0.3 and 0.13 μg l−1). Phytoplankton biomass increased in spring (Chl-a up to 1.13 μg l−1), and, despite potentially adequate growth conditions, this rise was small and phytoplankton was still dominated by small cells (2–20 μm). In addition, the early disappearing of sea-ice in spring 2006 let the surface water exposed to ultraviolet B radiations (UVBR, 280–320 nm), which seemed to have a negative impact on the microbial community in surface waters.

Keywords

Microbial food web Antarctica Sea-ice Ozone hole UV radiations 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was funded by the NSERC Special Research Opportunity Program grant nr. 334876-2005 conceded to Serge Demers. Daily stratospheric ozone concentrations over the study site were obtained from http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov/. The 2006 SMMR-SSM/I sea-ice concentration data were obtained from the EOS Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) at the National Snow and Ice Data Center, University of Colorado in Boulder, Colorado (http://nsidc.org). We would like to thank Sylvie Lessard for her help in identifying microorganisms under an inverted microscope. We would also like to thank Damian López, as well as the Sedna IV crew and his leader Jean Lemire, for their strong support during the field sampling in Antarctica.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sébastien Moreau
    • 1
    Email author
  • Gustavo A. Ferreyra
    • 1
    • 2
  • Bernard Mercier
    • 1
  • Karine Lemarchand
    • 1
  • Marie Lionard
    • 1
  • Suzanne Roy
    • 1
  • Behzad Mostajir
    • 4
  • Sébastien Roy
    • 1
  • Bon van Hardenberg
    • 3
  • Serge Demers
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut des sciences de la mer de Rimouski (ISMER)Université du Québec à RimouskiQuébecCanada
  2. 2.Instituto Antártico ArgentinoBuenos AiresArgentina
  3. 3.Department of Fisheries and OceansInstitute of Ocean SciencesSidneyCanada
  4. 4.Laboratoire Écosystèmes LagunairesUMR 5119 (Université Montpellier 2, CNRS, IFREMER, IRD)Montpellier Cedex 05France

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