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Polar Biology

, 33:41 | Cite as

Phylogenetic relationships of the endemic Antarctic benthic hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa): what does the mitochondrial 16S rRNA tell us about it?

  • Álvaro L. Peña Cantero
  • Vicente Sentandreu
  • Amparo Latorre
Original Paper

Abstract

Hydroidolinan hydrozoans are widely represented in the benthic Antarctic ecosystem, mainly by some endemic and putative monophyletic groups, never included in molecular phylogenetic analyses. 38 partial sequences of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene were obtained for 38 species belonging to 14 families (six anthoathecates and eight leptothecates) and 20 genera (7 anthoathecates and 13 leptothecates). These sequences were combined with 108 additional sequences retrieved from the GenBank to investigate both the hypothetical monophyletism and the phylogenetic relationships of those endemic Antarctic groups; the potential use of the marker for barcoding was also investigated. Our results uphold the monophyly of some important hydroidolinan groups, such as the superfamily Plumularioidea (together with all its families, including Schizotrichidae, fam. nov.) and the Aplanulata. Concerning the Antarctic endemic groups, most results as monophyletic (Oswaldella, Schizotricha and Staurotheca), some genera form part of the expectable groups (e.g. Abietinella, located into the monophyletic Zygophylacinae clade) and, finally, others have shown a surprising position (e.g. Stegella, closely related to Lafoeinae, or Billardia and Stegopoma, allied with Hebellidae). Finally, our study has shown the utility of the marker to recognize the Antarctic species considered, but the low genetic divergence in some of the most important Antarctic groups suggests being careful when using it for DNA barcoding in the case of the original Antarctic hydroid fauna.

Keywords

Southern Ocean Benthos New family Phylogeny Monophyly 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank those persons that in one way or another help us with this study, in particular Marc Ojeda, Andrés Laguna, Regina Antoni and Araceli Lamelas. The studied material was collected during the Spanish Antarctic benthic campaigns Bentart 2003 and Bentart 2006 funded by the Ministerio de Ciencia y Teconología (MCYT) of Spain (Ref. REN2003-01881/ANT and GLC2004-01856/ANT) and during a biodiversity survey of the western Ross Sea and Balleny Islands in 2004 undertaken by the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research and financed by the New Zealand Ministry of Fisheries. The study was partly funded by the Universitat de València (Ref. UV-AE-20050207).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Álvaro L. Peña Cantero
    • 1
  • Vicente Sentandreu
    • 2
  • Amparo Latorre
    • 2
  1. 1.Instituto Cavanilles de Biodiversidad y Biología EvolutivaUniversidad de Valencia, Fundación General Universidad de ValenciaValenciaSpain
  2. 2.Instituto Cavanilles de Biodiversidad y Biología EvolutivaUniversidad de ValenciaValenciaSpain

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