Barcoding Antarctic Biodiversity: current status and the CAML initiative, a case study of marine invertebrates
- 465 Downloads
The Census of Antarctic Marine Life (CAML) aims to collate DNA barcode data for Antarctic marine species. DNA barcoding is a technique that uses a short gene sequence from a standardised region of the genome as a diagnostic ‘biomarker’ for species. This study aimed to quantify genetic data currently available in GenBank in order to establish whether a representative cross-section of Antarctic marine taxa and bio-geographic areas has been sequenced and to propose priorities for barcoding, with a particular emphasis on marine invertebrate species. It was found that, amongst marine invertebrate fauna, sequence information covers a limited range of taxa and areas—mainly Crustacea, Annelida and Mollusca from the Weddell Sea and the Antarctic Peninsula. Only 15% of genes sequenced in Antarctic marine invertebrates were the standard barcode gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), the majority were other nuclear and mitochondrial genes. There is an urgent need for more in-depth genetic barcoding and species identification studies in Antarctic science, from a range of taxa and areas, given the rate of climate-driven habitat changes that might lead to extinctions in the region. CAML hopes to redress the balance, by collecting and sequencing over the circum-Antarctic area, using material from voyages that occurred during 2008 and 2009, within the framework of the International Polar Year (IPY).
KeywordsAntarctic Barcoding Molecular phylogenetics Marine biodiversity Invertebrates
This manuscript is contribution number 16 to the Census of Antarctic Marine Life (CAML) Project. The work was funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation under CAML. Thanks to Victoria Wadley and Jan Strugnell for helpful comments on the manuscript and to Huw Griffiths for producing the Antarctic map. Thanks to three anonymous reviewers.
- Arntz WE, Gutt J, Klages M (1997) Antarctic marine biodiversity: an overview. In: Battaglia B, Valencia J, Walton D (eds) Antarctic communities: species, structure and survival. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 3–14Google Scholar
- Brandt A, Gooday AJ, Brandano SN, Brix S, Broekeland W, Cedhagen T, Choudhury M, Cornelius N, Danis B, De Mesel I, Diaz RJ, Gillan DC, Ebbe B, Howe JA, Janussen D, Kaiser S, Linse K, Malyutina M, Pawlowski J, Raupach M, Vanreusel A (2007) First insights into the biodiversity and biogeography of the Southern Ocean deep sea. Nature 447:307–311CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Clarke A, Crame JA (1989) The origin of the Southern Ocean marine fauna. In: Crame JA (ed) Origins and evolution of the Antarctic biota. Geological Society of London Special Publication 47, pp 253–268Google Scholar
- Clarke A, Johnston NM (2003) Antarctic marine benthic diversity. Adv Oceanogr Mar Biol Annu Rev 47:47–114Google Scholar
- Held C (2003) Molecular evidence for cryptic speciation within Ceratoserolis trilobitoides (Crustacea, Isopoda). Antarctic Biol Global Context 305:1–5Google Scholar
- Held C, Wägele JW (2005) Cryptic speciation in the giant Antarctic isopod Glyptonotus antarcticus (Isopoda: Valvifera: Chaertiliidae). Sci Marina 69(2):175–181Google Scholar
- Page T, Linse K (2002) More evidence of speciation and dispersal across the Antarctic Polar Front through molecular systematics of Southern Ocean Limatula (Bivalvia: Limidae). Polar Biol 25:818–826Google Scholar
- Sperling FAH (2003) DNA barcoding: Deus ex machina. Newslett Biol Surv Can (Terrestrial Arthropods) 22:50–53Google Scholar