Advertisement

Polar Biology

, Volume 30, Issue 8, pp 1035–1046 | Cite as

Soft bottom species richness and diversity as a function of depth and iceberg scour in Arctic glacial Kongsfjorden (Svalbard)

  • Jürgen LaudienEmail author
  • Marko Herrmann
  • Wolf E. Arntz
Original Paper

Abstract

Macrozoobenthic soft-sediment communities of central Arctic Kongsfjorden inhabiting six depth zones between 5 and 30 m were sampled using SCUBA-diving during June–August 2003 and analysed comparatively. About 63 taxa were found, nine of which had not been reported for Kongsfjorden and four for Svalbard. Suspension feeding or surface and sub-surface detritivorous polychaetes and deposit-feeding amphipods were dominant. Only 11 of the 63 taxa (45 species and additional 18 families not further identified) inhabited the complete depth range. Biomass ranged from 3.5 to 25.0 g ash free dry mass m−2 and mean Shannon diversity (Log e) was 2.06. Similarity clustering from abundance and biomass data showed a significant difference between the shallow station (5 m) and the rest. The latter formed two sub-groups (10–20 and 25–30 m). Depth is irrevocably correlated with ice-scouring. Thus the differences in diversity together with the predicted iceberg scour intensity support the ‘intermediate disturbance hypothesis’ indicating that habitats impacted by moderate iceberg scouring enable higher diversity. In contrast, biotopes frequently affected only host pioneer communities, while mature, less diverse assemblages dominate depths of low impact.

Keywords

Biodiversity Feeding modes Ice-scouring Intermediate disturbance hypothesis Macrozoobenthos Soft-sediment 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work would not have been possible without the cold water adapted scientific diving group of the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI). Our deepest thanks are expressed for support during the field work, especially to Saskia Brandt, Tilman Alpermann, Drs. Jose Velez, Ricardo Sahade and Michael Assmann. We are also very grateful to Dr. Andreas Bick who was a great help in identifying polychaetes, Dr. Jørgen Berge who supported the identification of amphipods and Dr. Jon-Arne Sneli for this help with the identification of the molluscs. Chris Everett corrected the English. Two anonymous reviewers made comments, which improved the original manuscript considerably.

References

  1. Aitken AE (1990) Fossilization potential of Arctic fjord and continental shelf benthic macrofaunas. Geol Soc Spec Publ 53:155–180Google Scholar
  2. Aller JY, Stupakoff I (1996) The distribution and seasonal characteristics of benthic communities on the Amazon shelf as indicators of physical processes. Cont Shelf Res 16(5–6):717–751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arntz WE, Gutt J, Klages M (1997) Antarctic marine biodiversity: an overview. In: Battaglia B, Valencia J, Walton D (eds) Antarctic communities. Proceedings of the 6th SCAR biology symposium, Venice 1994. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge pp 3–14Google Scholar
  4. Anisimova NA, Presler P, Weslawski JM (1992) Echinodermata. In: Klekowski RZ, Weslawski JW (eds) Atlas of marine fauna of southern Spitsbergen. Inst Oceanol, PAS, Sopot, pp 153–155Google Scholar
  5. Armstrong T, Roberts B, Swithinbank C (1966) Illustrated glossary of snow and ice. Scott Polar Research Institute, Cambridge, p 60Google Scholar
  6. Barnes DKA (1999) The influence of ice on polar nearshore benthos. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 79:401–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barnes DKA, Brockington S (2003) Zoobenthic biodiversity, biomass and abundance at Adelaide Island, Antarctica. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 249:145–155Google Scholar
  8. Bick A, Arlt G (2005) Intertidal and subtidal soft-bottom macro- and meiofauna of the Kongsfjord (Spitsbergen). Polar Biol 28:550–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bluhm B, Iken K, Laudien J, Lippert H (2001) German activity in cold water scientific diving. In: Jewett SC (ed) Cold water diving for science. Proceedings of the 21st annual scientific diving symposium, American academy of underwater sciences. University of Alaska Sea Grant, AK-SG-01-06, Fairbanks, pp 1–4Google Scholar
  10. Brattegard T, Holthe T (1997) Distribution of marine, benthic macro-organisms in Norway. A tabulated catalogue. Preliminary edition. Research Report No. 1991–1 Directorate for Nature Management, Trondheim, Norway, p 409Google Scholar
  11. Brey T, Gerdes D (1997) Is Antarctic benthic biomass really higher than elsewhere? Ant Sci 9:266–267Google Scholar
  12. Clarke KR, Gorley RN (2006) Primer v6: user manual/tutorial. PRIMER-E, PlymouthGoogle Scholar
  13. Conlan KE, Lenihan HS, Kvitek RG, Oliver JS (1998) Ice scour disturbance to benthic communities in the Canadian high Arctic. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 166:1–16Google Scholar
  14. Conlan KE, Kvitek RG (2005) Recolonization of soft-sediment ice scours on an exposed Arctic coast. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 286:21–42Google Scholar
  15. Connell JH (1978) Diversity in tropical rain forests and coral reefs. Science 199:1303–1310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Connell JH, Keough MJ (1985) Disturbance and patch dynamics of subtidal marine animals on hard substrata. In: Pickett STA, White PS (eds) The ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics. Academic, Orleando, pp 125–147Google Scholar
  17. Dayton PK (1990) Polar benthos. In: Smith WE (ed) Polar oceanography, part B: chemistry, biology and geology. Academic, London, pp 631–685Google Scholar
  18. Dowdeswell JA, Forsberg CF (1992) The size and frequency of icebergs and bergy bits derived from tidewater glaciers in Kongsfjorden, Northwest Spitsbergen. Polar Res 11:81–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ellingsen KE (2002) Soft-sediment benthic biodiversity on the continental shelf in relation to environmental variability. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 232:15–27Google Scholar
  20. Farrow GE, Syvitsky JPM, Tunnicliffe V (1983) Suspended particulate loading on the macrobenthos in a highly turbid fjord: Knight Inlet, British Columbia. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 40(Suppl 1):273–288Google Scholar
  21. Gajewska NS (1948) Opredelitel’ Fauny I Flory Severnych Morej SSSR [Key to Fauna and Flora of North Seas of Soviet Union]. Gos. Lzd. ‘Sovetskaja Nauka’, Moskva, p 739Google Scholar
  22. Görlich K, Weslawski JM, Zajaczkowski M (1987) Suspension settling effect on macrobenthos biomass distribution in the Hornsund fjord, Spitsbergen. Polar Res 5:175–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gray JS (2000) The measurement of marine species diversity, with an application to the benthic fauna of the Norwegian continental shelf. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 250:23–49CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Gray JS (2001) Marine diversity: the paradigms in patterns of species richness examined. Sci Mar 65(2):41–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gromisz S (1983) Bottom fauna communities of glacial bays situated at glaciers Hyrne and Stor (Spitsbergen-Hornsund) (in Polish). In: Proceedings of the polish polar research 1970–1982. Uniwersytet M Kopernika, Torún, pp 267–276Google Scholar
  26. Gromisz S, Legezynska E (1992). Polychaeta. In: Klekowski RZ, Weslawski JW (eds) Atlas of marine fauna of southern Spitsbergen. Inst Oceanol, PAS, Sopot, pp 8–111Google Scholar
  27. Gulliksen B, Holte B, Jakola KJ (1984) The soft bottom fauna in Van Mijenfjord and Raudfjord, Svalbard. In: Gray J, Christiansen ME (eds) Marine biology of polar regions and effects of stress on marine organisms. Wiley, Oslo, pp 199–215Google Scholar
  28. Gulliksen B, Palerud R, Brattegard T, Sneli J-A (eds) (1999) Distribution of marine benthic macroorganisms at Svalbard (including Bear Island) and Jan Mayen. Research Report for DN 1999-4. Directorate for Nature Management, Trondheim, pp 1–148Google Scholar
  29. Gulliksen B, Svensen E (2004) Svalbard and life in polar oceans. Kom forlag, Kristiansund, Norway, p 160Google Scholar
  30. Gutt J (2001) On the direct impact of ice on marine benthic communities, a review. Polar Biol 24:553–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gutt J, Helsen E, Arntz W, Buschmann A (1999) Biodiversity and community structure of the mega-epibenthos in the Magellan region (South America). In: Arntz WE, Rios C (eds) Magellan-Antarctic: ecosystems that drifted apart. Sci Mar 63:155–170Google Scholar
  32. Gutt J, Piepenburg D (2003) Scale-dependent impacts of catastrophic disturbances by grounding icebergs on the diversity of Antarctic benthos. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 253:77–83Google Scholar
  33. Hanelt D, Bischof K, Wiencke C (2004) The radiation, temperature and salinity regime in Kongsfjorden. In: Wiencke C (ed) The coastal ecosystem of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. Synopsis of biological research performed at the Koldewey station in the years 1991–2003. Ber Polarforsch Meeresforsch 492:14–25Google Scholar
  34. Herrmann M (2004) Macrozoobenthos communities of Svalbard. World Wide Web electronic publication. http://www.macrozoobenthos.deGoogle Scholar
  35. Herrmann M, Laudien J (2004) Data from soft bottom community structure and diversity in Arctic Kongsfjord. http://www.marbef.orgGoogle Scholar
  36. Holme NA (1964) Methods of sampling the benthos. Adv Mar Biol 2:171–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Holte B, Dahle S, Gulliksen B, Naes K (1996) Some macrofaunal effects of local pollution and glacier-induced sedimentation with indicative chemical analyses in the sediments of two Arctic fjords. Polar Biol 16:549–557Google Scholar
  38. Hop H, Pearson T, Hegseth EN, Kovacs KM, Wiencke C, Kwasniewski S, Eiane K, Mehlum F, Gulliksen B, Wlodarska-Kowalczuk M, Lydersen C, Weslawski JM, Cochrane S, Gabrielsen GW, Leakey RJG, Lønne OJ, Zajaczkowski M, Falk-Petersen S, Kendall M, Wängberg S-A, Bischof K, Voronkov AY, Kovaltchouk NA, Wiktor J, Poltermann M, di Prisco G, Papucci C, Gerland S (2002) The marine ecosystem of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. Polar Res 21:167–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Huston M (1979) A general hypothesis of species diversity. Am Nat 113:81–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ingole BS, Ansari ZA, Rathod V, Rodrigues N (2001) Response of deep-sea macrobenthos to a small-scale environmental disturbance. Deep-Sea Res II 48(16):3401−3410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jennings S, Pinnegar JK, Polunin NVC, Warr KJ (2001) Impacts of trawling disturbance on the trophic structure of benthic invertebrate communities. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 213:127–142Google Scholar
  42. Jørgensen LL, Gulliksen B (2001) Rocky bottom fauna in arctic Kongsfjord (Svalbard) studied by means of suction sampling and photography. Polar Biol 24:113–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kaczmarek H, Wlodarska-Kowalczuk M, Legezynska J, Zajaczkowski M (2005) Shallow sublittoral macrozoobenthos in Kongsfjord, West Spitsbergen, Svalbard. Pol Polar Res 26:137–155Google Scholar
  44. Kendall MA (1994) Polychaete assemblages along a depth gradient in a Spitsbergen Fjord. In: Dauvin JC, Laubier L, Reish DJ (eds) Acte de la 4eme Conference internationale des Polychaetes. Mémoires du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle 162, Zoologie, pp 463–470Google Scholar
  45. Kendall MA, Aschan M (1993) Latitudinal gradients in the structure of macrobenthic communities: a comparison of Arctic, temperate and tropical sites. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 172:157–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kendall MA, Widdicombe S, Weslawski JM (2003) A multi-scale of the biodiversity of benthic infauna of the high-latitude Kongsfjord, Svalbard. Polar Biol 26:283–388Google Scholar
  47. Klöser H, Ferreyra G, Schloss I, Mercuri G, Laturnus F, Curtosi A (1994) Hydrography of Potter Cove, a small fjord-like inlet on King George Island (South Shetlands). Est Coast Shelf Sci 38:523–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Laudien J, Herrmann M, Arntz WE (2004) Soft bottom community structure and diversity in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard). In: Wiencke C (ed) The coastal ecosystem of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. Synopsis of biological research performed at the Koldewey station in the years 1991–2003. Ber Polarforsch Meeresforsch 492:91–102Google Scholar
  49. Lefauconnier B, Hagen JO, Rudant JP (1994) Flow speed and calving rate of Kongsbreen glacier, Svalbard, using SPOT images. Polar Res 10:56–65Google Scholar
  50. Liestøl O (1988) The glaciers of the Kongsfjorden area. Spitsbergen. Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift 42:231–238Google Scholar
  51. Lippert H, Iken K, Rachor E, Wiencke C (2001) Macrofauna associated with macroalgae in the Kongsfjord (Spitsbergen). Polar Biol 24:512–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Magurran AE (2004) Measuring biological diversity. Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA, p 256Google Scholar
  53. Moore PG (1977) Inorganic particulate suspensions in the sea and their effects on marine animals. Oceanogr Mar Biol Annu Rev 15:225–363Google Scholar
  54. Mutschke E, Gorny M (1999) The benthic decapod fauna in the channels and fjords along the South Patagonian Icefield, Southern Chile. In: Arntz WE, Rios C (eds) Magellan—Antarctic: ecosystems that drifted apart. Sci Mar 63(Suppl 1):315–319Google Scholar
  55. Ockelmann WK (1958) The zoology of East Greenland, Marine Lamellibranchiata. Medd om Grønland 122:1–256Google Scholar
  56. Pearson TH, Rosenberg R (1978) A comparative study of the effects on the marine environment of wastes from cellulose industries in Scotland and Sweden. Ambio 5(2):77–79Google Scholar
  57. Peck LS, Brockington S, Vanhove S, Beghyn M (1999) Community recovery following catastrophic iceberg impacts in a soft-sediment shallow-water site at Signy Island, Antarctica. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 186:1–8Google Scholar
  58. Reice SR (1994) Nonequilibrium determinants of biological community structure. Am Sci 82:424–435Google Scholar
  59. Rózycki O (1991) Mollusca. In: Klekowski RZ, Weslawski JW (eds) Atlas of marine fauna of southern Spitsbergen. Inst Oceanol, PAS, Sopot, pp 358–531Google Scholar
  60. Roy K, Jablonski D, Valentine JW, Rosenberg G (1998) Marine latitudinal diversity gradients: tests of causal hypotheses. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95:3699–3702PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sahade R, Tatián M, Kowalke J, Kühne S, Esnal GB (1998) Benthic faunal associations on soft substrates at Potter Cove, King George Island, Antarctica. Polar Biol 19:85–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Sahade R, Stellfeldt A, Tatián M, Laudien J (2004) Macro-epibenthic communities and diversity of Arctic Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, in relation to depth and substrate. In: Wiencke C (ed) The coastal ecosystem of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. Synopsis of biological research performed at the Koldewey Station in the years 1991–2003. Ber Polarforsch Meeresforsch 492:103–111Google Scholar
  63. Schmid MK, Piepenburg D (1993) The benthos zonation of the Disko Fjord, West Greenland. Medd Grønland 37:21Google Scholar
  64. Svendsen H, Beszczynska-Møller A, Hagen JO, Lefauconnier B, Tverberg V, Gerland S, Ørbæk JB, Bischof K, Papucci C, Zajaczkowski M, Azzolini R, Bruland O, Wiencke C, Winther J-G, Dallmann W (2002) The physical environment of Kongsfjorden-Krossfjorden, an Arctic fjord system in Svalbard. Polar Res 21:133–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Syvitski JPM, Farrow GE, Atkinson RJA, Moore PG, Andrews JT (1989) Baffin Island fjord macrobenthos: bottom communities and environmental significance. Arctic 42:232–247Google Scholar
  66. Thorson G (1957) Treatise on marine ecology and palaeoecology. In: Hedgpeth JW (ed) Mem Geol Soc Soc Amer, pp 461–534Google Scholar
  67. Valdivia N, Heidemann A, Thiel M, Molis M, Wahl M (2005) Effects of disturbance on the diversity of hard-bottom macrobenthic communities on the coast of Chile. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 299:45–54Google Scholar
  68. Weslawski JW (1991) Malacostraca. In: Klekowski RZ, Weslawski JW (eds) Atlas of marine fauna of southern Spitsbergen. Inst Oceanol, PAS, Sopot, pp 118–332Google Scholar
  69. Weslawski JW, Szymelfenig M, Zajaczkowski M, Keck A (1999) Influence of salinity and suspended matter on benthos of an Arctic tidal flat. ICES J Mar Sci Suppl 56:194–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Whittington RJ, Forsberg CF, Dowdeswell JA (1997) Seismic and side-scan sonar investigations of recent sedimentation in an ice-proximal glacimarine setting, Kongsfjorden, north-west Spitsbergen. In: Davies TA (eds) Glaciated continental margins—an atlas of acoustic images. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 175–178Google Scholar
  71. Wiencke C, Vögele B, Kovaltchouk NA, Hop H (2004) Species composition and zonation of marine benthic macroalgae at Hansneset in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. In: Wiencke C (ed) The coastal ecosystem of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. Synopsis of biological research performed at the Koldewey Station in the years 1991–2003. Ber Polarforsch Meeresforsch 492:55–62Google Scholar
  72. Wilson (1991) Competition and predation in marine soft-sediment communities. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 21:221–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wlodarska M, Weslawski JM, Gromisz S (1996) A comparison of the macrofaunal community structure and diversity in two arctic glacial bays—a ‘cold’ one off Franz Josef land and a ‘warm’ one off Spitsbergen. Oceanologia 38:251–283Google Scholar
  74. Wlodarska-Kowalczuk M, Wesawski JM, Kotwicki L (1998) Spitsbergen glacial bays macrobenthos—a comparative study. Polar Biol 20:66–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Wlodarska-Kowalczuk M, Pearson TH (2004) Soft-bottom macrobenthic faunal associations and factors affecting species distributions in an Arctic glacial fjord (Kongsfjord, Spitsbergen). Polar Biol 27:155–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Wlodarska-Kowalczuk M, Pearson TH, Kendall MA (2005) Benthic response to chronic natural physical disturbance by glacial sedimentation in an Arctic fjord. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 303:31–41Google Scholar
  77. Woodworth-Lynas CMT, Josenhans HW, Barrie JV, Lewis CFM, Parrott DR (1991) The physical processes of seabed disturbance during iceberg grounding and scouring. Cont Shelf Res 11:939–961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Zacharias MA, Roff JC (2001) Explanations of patterns of intertidal diversity at regional scales. J Biogeogr 28(4):471–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jürgen Laudien
    • 1
    Email author
  • Marko Herrmann
    • 1
  • Wolf E. Arntz
    • 1
  1. 1.Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine ResearchBremerhavenGermany

Personalised recommendations