Polar Biology

, Volume 30, Issue 7, pp 859–869 | Cite as

Biology and molecular phylogenetics of Nematoceras sulcatum, a second endemic orchid species from subantarctic Macquarie Island

  • Mark A. ClementsEmail author
  • Anne M. Mackenzie
  • Geof R. Copson
  • Brian P. J. Molloy
  • Noel Carmichael
  • Mary L. Skotnicki
  • Patricia M. Selkirk
Original Paper


A second orchid species, Nematoceras sulcatum M.A.Clem. et D.L.Jones, has been found on subantarctic Macquarie Island. A history of its discovery and recognition is provided. The morphology, biology and ecology of the new species are compared with N. dienemum (D.L.Jones) D.L.Jones, M.A.Clem. et Molloy, the other species of orchid on Macquarie Island. Molecular studies based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA reveal the phylogenetic relationship of the two Macquarie Island species compared to others in the genus from New Zealand and its Southern Ocean islands.


Nematoceras Orchidaceae Subantartic Macquarie Island Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 



This work was supported by an Australian Antarctic Science Grant. We thank the Australian Antarctic Division for logistical support, the Tasmanian Parks and Wildlife Service for access to Macquarie Island, and the Tasmanian Resource Management and Conservation for permission to collect plant specimens on Macquarie Island. New Zealand Nematoceras specimens used in this study are part of the “Molecular Survey of New Zealand Orchidaceae” (Part FRST contract C09618). We thank S. Wragg, A. Wilson and L. Jaggers for assistance with the figures; L. Gadd, D.L. Jones, P. McBride, H. Richards, J. Sheridan and J. Whinam for assisting with field collections and I. Sharma for assistance with sequencing. We especially thank David Jones for invaluable discussion on the manuscript.


  1. Adams PB, Lawson SD (1993) Pollination in Australian orchids: a critical assessment of the literature 1882–1992. Aust J Bot 41:553–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adamson DA, Whetton P, Selkirk PM (1988) An analysis of air temperature records for Macquarie Island: decadal warming, ENSO cooling and southern Hemisphere circulation patterns. Pap Proc R Soc Tas 122:107–112Google Scholar
  3. Adamson DA, Selkirk PM, Price DM, Ward N, Selkirk JM (1996) Pleistocene uplift and palaeoenvironments of Macquarie Island: evidence from palaeobeaches and sedimentary deposits. Pap Proc R Soc Tas 130:25–32Google Scholar
  4. Bergstrom DM, Selkirk PM (1987) Reproduction and dispersal of mosses on Macquarie Island. Symp Biol Hung 35:247–257Google Scholar
  5. Bergstrom DM, Turner PAM, Scott J, Copson G, Shaw J (2006) Restricted plant species on sub-Antarctic Macquarie and Heard Islands. Polar Biol 29:532–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brown MJ, Jenkin JF, Brothers NP, Copson GR (1978) Corybas macranthus (Hook.f.) Reichb.f. (Orchidaceae), a new record for Macquarie Island. NZ J Bot 16:405–407Google Scholar
  7. Cheeseman TF (1906) Orchideae. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer, Wellington, pp 660–698Google Scholar
  8. Clements MA (1988) Orchid mycorrhizal associations. Lindleyana 3(2):73–86Google Scholar
  9. Clements MA, Hatch ED (1985) Corybas acuminatus (Orchidaceae) -a new name for the species previously considered to be Corybas rivularis. NZ J Bot 23:491–494Google Scholar
  10. Clements MA, Jones DL (2006) A new species of Nematoceras and characterization of N. dienemum (Orchidaceae), both from subantarctic Macquarie Island. Telopea 11(4): xxx (in press)Google Scholar
  11. Clements MA, Jones DL, Sharma IK, Nightingale ME, Garratt MJ, Fitzgerald KJ, Mackenzie AM, Molloy BPJ (2002) Phylogenetics of Diurideae (Orchidaceae) based on the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of nuclear Ribosomal DNA. Lindleyana 17(3):135–171Google Scholar
  12. Copson GR (1984) An annotated atlas of the vascular flora of Macquarie Island. ANARE Res Notes 18:1–70Google Scholar
  13. Dartnall HJG, Hollwedel W, de Paggi JC (2005) The freshwater fauna of Macquarie Island, including a redescription of the endemic water-flea Daphnia gelida (Brady) (Anomopoda:Crustacea). Polar Biol 28:922–939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Davies KF, Melbourne BA (1999) Statistical models of invertebrate distribution on Macquarie Island: a tool to assess climate change and local human impacts. Polar Biol 21:240–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Felsenstein J (1985) Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39:783–791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Flanagan NS, Ebert D, Porter C, Rossetto M, Peakall R (2006a) R. Microsatellite markers for evolutionary studies in the sexually deceptive orchid genus Chiloglottis. Mol Ecol Notes 6(1):123–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Flanagan NS, Peakall R, Clements MA, Otero, JT (2006b) Conservation of taxonomically difficult species: the case of the Australian orchid, Microtis angusii. Cons Gen (in press). DOI:10.1007/s10592-006-9119-8Google Scholar
  18. Fuller G (1994) Observations on the pollination of Corybas “A”. NZNOGJ 52:18–22Google Scholar
  19. Gillespie RG (2002) Biogeography of spiders on remote oceanic islands of the Pacific: archipelagoes as stepping stones? J Biogeog 29:655–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Greenslade P (1990) Notes on the biogeography of the free-living terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Macquarie Island with an annotated checklist. Pap Proc R Soc Tas 124:35–50Google Scholar
  21. Greenslade P, Farrow RA, Smith JMB (1999) Long distance migration of insects to a subantarctic island. J Biogeog 26:1161–1167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hall T (2001) BioEdit version 4.7, North Carolina State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  23. Hamilton A (1895) Notes on a visit to Macquarie Island. Trans Proc NZ Inst 27:559–579Google Scholar
  24. Hooker JD (1844–1860) The botany of the Antarctic voyage. Reeve & Co., LondonGoogle Scholar
  25. Hooker JD (1864) Handbook of the New Zealand flora. Reeve & Co., LondonGoogle Scholar
  26. Ingham SE (1959) Banding of giant petrels by the Australian national Antarctic expeditions, 1955–1958. Emu 59:189–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Irwin B (1993) Notes on seven forms of Corybas rivularis. NZNOGJ 47:7–9Google Scholar
  28. Irwin B (1995) The various forms of Corybas rivularis sensu lato. NZNOGJ 55:23–24Google Scholar
  29. Irwin B (2003) Updating the Nematoceras (Corybas) rivularis imbroglio. NZNOGJ 86:16–19Google Scholar
  30. Jenkin JF, Ashton DH (1970) Productivity studies on Macquarie Island. In: Holgate MW (ed) Antarctic ecology. Academic, New York, pp 851–863Google Scholar
  31. Johnson SD, Steiner KE (2000) Generalization versus specialization in plant pollination systems. Tree 15:140–143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Jones DL (1971) The pollination of Corybas diemenicus (Lindl.) Rupp et Nicholls ex Rupp. Orchadian 3(12):156–159Google Scholar
  33. Jones DL (1981) The pollination of selected Australian Orchids. In: Lawler L, Kerr RD (eds) Proceedings of the orchid symposium held as a satellite function of the 13th International Botanical Congress, Sydney, Australia 1981.Orchid Society of New South WalesGoogle Scholar
  34. Jones DL (1993) Corybas dienemus D.L. Jones sp.nov. Flora Aust 50:572Google Scholar
  35. Jones DL (2006) A complete guide to native orchids of Australia including the island territories. Reed New Holland Publishers (Australia) Pty Ltd, Sydney, p 173Google Scholar
  36. Jones DL, Clements MA, Sharma IK, Mackenzie AM, Molloy BPJ (2002) Nomenclatural notes arising from studies into the tribe Diurideae (Orchidaceae). Orchadian 13(10):437–468Google Scholar
  37. Jones DL, Hopley T, Duffy SM, Richards KJ, Clements MA , Zhang X (2006) Australian orchid genera. CSIRO Publishing, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  38. de Lange PJ, Sawyer JWD; Ansell R (1999) Checklist of indigenous vascular plant species recorded from Chatham Islands. Department of Conservation, WellingtonGoogle Scholar
  39. Laursen GA, Treu R, Seppelt RD, Stephenson SL (1997) Mycorrhizal assessment of vascular plants from subantarctic Macquarie Island. Arct Alp Res 29:483–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mackenzie A, Carmichael N, Clements M, Copson G, Selkirk P, Skotnicki M (2005) Australia’s subantarctic orchids. In: Raynal-Roques A, Roguenant A, Prat D (eds) Proceedings of the 18th World Orchid Conference March 11–20, 2005, Dijon-France. Naturalia, France, pp 321–324Google Scholar
  41. Maddison WP, Maddison DR (1992) MacClade: Analysis of Phylogeny and Character Evolution. (Version 3.0) [Computer program] Available from: Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  42. de la Mare WK, Kerry KR (1994) Population dynamics of the wandering albatross (Diomedea exulans) Macquarie Island and the effects of mortality from longline fishing. Polar Biol 14:231–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Meurk CD (1975) Contributions to the flora and plant ecology of Campbell Island. NZ J Bot 13:721–742Google Scholar
  44. Miller D (1918) A new fungus-gnat which fertilizes Corysanthes oblonga Hook. NZ J Sci Tech 1:4Google Scholar
  45. Molloy BPJ (2002) Orchids of the Chatham Islands. Department of Conservation, WellingtonGoogle Scholar
  46. Molloy BPJ, Irwin JB (1996) Two new species of Corybas (Orchidaceae) from New Zealand, and taxonomic notes on C. rivularis and C. orbiculatus. NZ J Bot 34:1–10Google Scholar
  47. Moore DM (1983) Flora of Tierra del Fuego. Anthony Nelson, Oswestry, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  48. Muñoz J, Felicisimo AM, Cabezas F, Burgaz AR, Martínez I (2004) Wind as a long-distance dispersal vehicle in the Southern Hemisphere. Science 304:1144–1147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. New Zealand Native Orchids (2006) Cited 18 May 2006
  50. Otero JT, Clements MA (2005) Partner preference in Australian Orchid mycorrhizae: coevolution or correlation. In: Raynal-Roques A, Roguenant A, Prat D (eds) Proceedings of the 18th World Orchid Conference March 11–20, Dijon-France. Naturalia, France, pp 366–370Google Scholar
  51. Reichenbach HG (1871) Beitr. Syst. Pflanznek. Druck von Th.G. Meissner, HamburgGoogle Scholar
  52. Rich J (1996) Patterned quaking mire at Handspike Point, Macquarie Island. Pap Proc R Soc Tas 130:49–65Google Scholar
  53. Scanlen E (2005) Nematoceras aff. dienema in the South Island? NZNOGJ 97:37–38Google Scholar
  54. Scanlen E (2006) Flies’ eggs in Nematoceras triloba agg. NZNOGJ 98:34Google Scholar
  55. Scott JH (1883) Macquarie Island. Trans Proc NZ Inst 15:484–493Google Scholar
  56. Selkirk PM, Seppelt RD, Selkirk DR (1990) Subantarctic Macquarie Island: environment and biology. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  57. St George I (1989) The Hookers and the New Zealand orchids. No. 7 of the New Zealand Native Orchid Group’s Historical Series, DunedinGoogle Scholar
  58. St George I (1995) Notes. NZNOGJ 54:18–19Google Scholar
  59. St George I (1996a) Notes. NZNOGJ 58:4–11Google Scholar
  60. St George I (1996b) Corybas on the southern islands. NZNOGJ 60:2–3Google Scholar
  61. St George I (1999) The nature guide to New Zealand native orchids. Random House New Zealand, AucklandGoogle Scholar
  62. St George I (2001) An insect pollinated form of Corybas aff. tribolus? NZNOGJ 79:4Google Scholar
  63. St George I (2005) Nematoceras dienema. NZNOGJ 97:4–7Google Scholar
  64. St George I (2006a) The New Zealand Native Orchids website. Cited 10 May 2006Google Scholar
  65. St George I (2006b) The various contrivances by which the New Zealand orchids are fertilised by themselves. NZNOGJ 99:1–3Google Scholar
  66. Swofford DL (1998) ‘PAUP* 4.0b: Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (and other methods). Sinauer Associates, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  67. Warcup JH (1981) Mycorrhizal relationships of Australian orchids. New Phytol 87:371–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Wardle P (1978) Origin of the New Zealand mountain flora, with special reference to trans-Tasman relationships. NZ J Bot 16:535–550Google Scholar
  69. Wardle P (1987) Dracophyllum (Epacridaceae) in the Chatham and subantarctic islands of New Zealand. NZ J Bot 25:107–114Google Scholar
  70. Whigham DF, O’Neill JP, Rasmussen HN, Caldwell BA, McCormaick MK (2006) Seed longevity in terrestrial orchids – Potential for persistent in situ seed banks. Biol Cons 129:24–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. White TJ, Bruns T, Lee S, Taylor J (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: Innis M, Gelfand D, Sninsky J, White T (Eds) PCR protocols: a guide to methods and applications. Academic, San Diego pp 315–322Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark A. Clements
    • 1
    Email author
  • Anne M. Mackenzie
    • 2
    • 3
  • Geof R. Copson
    • 4
  • Brian P. J. Molloy
    • 5
  • Noel Carmichael
    • 6
  • Mary L. Skotnicki
    • 2
  • Patricia M. Selkirk
    • 7
  1. 1.Centre for Plant Biodiversity ResearchCanberraAustralia
  2. 2.Research School of Biological Sciences, Institute of Advanced StudiesAustralian National UniversityCanberraAustralia
  3. 3.CSIRO, Plant IndustryCanberraAustralia
  4. 4.Department of Primary Industries and WaterHobartAustralia
  5. 5.Landcare ResearchLincolnNew Zealand
  6. 6.Parks and Wildlife ServiceMoonahAustralia
  7. 7.Department of Biological SciencesMacquarie UniversitySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations