Advertisement

Polar Biology

, Volume 29, Issue 4, pp 320–326 | Cite as

A molecular phylogeny of antarctic chironomidae and its implications for biogeographical history

  • Giuliana Allegrucci
  • Gianmaria Carchini
  • Valentina Todisco
  • Peter Convey
  • Valerio Sbordoni
Original Paper

Abstract

The chironomid midges Belgica antarctica, Eretmoptera murphyi (subfamily Orthocladiinae) and Parochlus steinenii (subfamily Podonominae), are the only Diptera species currently found in Antarctica. The relationships between these species and a range of further taxa of Chironomidae were examined by sequencing domains 1 and 3–5 of 28S ribosomal RNA. The resulting molecular relationships between B. antarctica and E. murphyi, within Orthocladiinae, were highly supported by validation analyses, confirming their position within Chironomidae, as generated by classical taxonomy. Within Podonominae, P. steinenii from the Maritime Antarctic was more closely related to material from sub-Antarctic South Georgia than to material from Patagonia. Taking advantage of the availability of a molecular substitution rate calculated for this gene in Diptera, a dating of divergence between our study taxa was tentatively established. The divergence dates obtained were 49 million years (Myr), between B. antarctica and E. murphyi, and 68.5 Myr between these species and the closest Orthocladiinae taxon tested from Patagonia, suggesting that B. antarctica and E. murphyi were representatives of an ancient lineage. As both are endemic to their respective tectonic microplates, their contemporary distribution is, therefore, likely to have been shaped by vicariance rather than dispersal.

Keywords

Meiofauna Antarctic Peninsula Drake Passage South Shetland Island Relative Rate Test 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Dr. Annalia Paggi for determining most of the taxa of Patagonian origin, Dr. Mateo Martinic Beros, Director of the Instituto de Magallanes, for supplying formal and practical facilities and Col. Luciano Corti for his invaluable help (and patience) during G. Carchini’s sampling trip in Chilean Patagonia. We also thank Dr. Mike Curtis (BAS) for advice on palaeogeographic interpretations, and Dr. Gabriele Gentile for discussion of some genetic aspects of the paper. Dr. Bruno Rossaro gave us additional taxa from Italy and provided useful criticisms on a previous version of the paper. This research was financially supported by PNRA (the Italian Program of Antarctic Research) and by CNR (the Italian Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche) grants to G. Carchini, and BAS provided logistical and technical support allowing the collection of material and access to preserved collections. This paper also contributes to the BAS BIRESA and SCAR RiSCC Programs.

References

  1. Armitage PD, Cranston PS, Pinder, LCV (eds) (1995) The Chironomidae. Biology and ecology of non-biting midges. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. Barker PF (1982) The Cenozoic subduction history of the Pacific margin of the Antarctic Peninsula: Ridge crest interaction. J Geol Soc Lond 139:787–801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Block W, Burn AJ, Richard KJ (1984) An insect introduction to the martime Antarctic. Biol J Linn Soc 23:33–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brundin L (1966) Transantarctic relationships and their significance, as evidenced by Chironomid midges. Kungl Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handl 11:1–472Google Scholar
  5. Convey P (1992) Aspects of biology of the midge Eretmoptera murphyi Schaeffer (Diptera: Chironomidae), introduced to Signy Island, Maritime Antarctic. Polar Biol 12:653–657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Convey P (2001) Antarctic ecosystems. In: Levin SA (ed) Encyclopaedia of Biodiversity, vol 1. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 171–184Google Scholar
  7. Convey P, Block W (1996) Antarctic Diptera: ecology, physiology and distribution. Eur J Entomol 93:1–13Google Scholar
  8. Cranston PS (1985) Eretmoptera murphyi Schaeffer (Diptera: Chironomidae), an apparently parthenogenetic Antarctic midge. Brit Antarct Surv Bull 66:35–45Google Scholar
  9. Danks HV (1990) Arctic insects: instructive diversity. In: Harrington CR (ed) Canada’s missing dimension: science and history in the Canadian Arctic Islands. Canadian Museum of Nature, pp 444–470Google Scholar
  10. Darlington PJ (1965) Biogeography of the southern end of the world. Distribution and history of far-southern life and land, with an assessment of continental drift. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  11. Dingle RV, Lavelle M (2000) Antarctic Peninsula late Cretaceous—early Cenozoic palaeoenvironments and Gondwana palaeogeographics. J Afr Earth Sci 31:91–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Elliot DH (1985) Physical geography–geological evolution. In: Bonner WN, Walton DWH (eds) Key environments—Antarctica. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 39–61Google Scholar
  13. Farris JS (1970) Methods for computing Wagner trees. Syst Zool 18:374–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Felsenstein J (1981) A likelihood approach to character weighting and what it tells us about parsimony and compatibility. Biol J Linn Soc 16:183–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Friedrich M, Tautz D (1997) An episodic change of rDNA nucleotide substitution rate has occurred during the emergence of the insect order Diptera. Mol Biol Evol 14:644–653PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Greenslade P (1995) Collembola from the Scotia Arc and Antarctic Peninsula including descriptions of two new species and notes on biogeography. Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 64:305–319Google Scholar
  17. Gu X, Fu YX, Li WH (1995) Maximum likelihood estimation of heterogeneity of substitution rate among nucleotide sites. Mol Biol Evol 12:546–557PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Gutell RR, Gray W, Schnare MN (1993) A compilation of large subunit (23S and 23S-like) ribosomal RNA structures. Nucleic Acids Res 21:3055–3074PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hay WW, DeConto RM, Wold CN, Wilson KM, Voigt S, Schulz M, Wold AR, Dullo WC, Ronov AB, Balukhovsky AN, Söding E (1999) Alternative global Cretaceous paleogeography. In: Barrera E, Johnson CC (eds) Evolution of the Cretaceous Ocean–Climate System. Geological Society of America, Boulder. Special Paper 33:1–47Google Scholar
  20. Hillis DM, Dixon MT (1991) Ribosomal DNA: molecular evolution and phylogenetic inference. Quart Rev Biol 66:411–453CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Kjer KM, Baldridge GD, Fallon AM (1994) Mosquito large subunit ribosomal RNA: simultaneous alignment of primary and secondary structure. Biochim Biophys Acta 1217:147–155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Kumar S, Tamura K, Jakobsen IB, Nei M (2001) MEGA2: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis software. Arizona State University, Tempe, ArizonaGoogle Scholar
  23. Lanave C, Preparata C, Saccone C, Serio G (1984) A new method for calculating evolutionary substitution rates. J Mol Evol 20:86–93CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Lawver LA, Gahagan LM, Coffin MF (1992) The development of paleoseaways around Antarctica. Antarct Res Ser 56:7–30Google Scholar
  25. Livermore R, Eagles G, Morris P, Maldonado A (2004) Shackleton Fracture Zone: no barrier to early circumpolar ocean circulation. Geology 32:797–800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Marshall DJ, Coetzee L (2000) Historical biogeography and ecology of a Continental Antarctic mite genus, Maudheimia (Acari, Oribatida): evidence for a Gondwanan origin and Pliocene-Pleistocene speciation. Zool J Linn Soc 129:111–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Marshall DJ, Pugh PJA (1996) Origin of the inland Acari of continental Antarctica, with particular reference to Dronning Maud Land. Zool J Linn Soc 118:101–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Posada D, Crandall K (1998) Modeltest: testing the model of DNA substitutions. Bioinformatics 14:817–818PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pugh PJA, Convey P (2000) Scotia Arc Acari: antiquity and origin. Zool J Linn Soc 130:309–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ronquist F, Huelsenbeck JP (2003) MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 19:1572–1574PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sæther OA (1977) Female genitalia in chironomidae and other nematocera: morphology, phylogenies, keys. Bull Fish Res Bd Can 197:1–209Google Scholar
  32. Stevens MI, Hogg ID (2003) Long-term isolation and recent range expansion revealed for the endemic springtail Gomphiocephalus hodgsoni from southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Mol Ecol 12:2357–2369CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Strenzke K (1960) Metamorphose und Verwandtschaftsbeziehungen der Gattung Clunio Hal. (Dipt.). (Terrestrische Chironomiden XXIV). Suomal Eläin-ja Kasvit Seur Van Eläin Julk 22:1–30Google Scholar
  34. Tajima F (1993) Simple methods for testing the molecular evolutionary clock hypothesis. Genetics 135:599–607PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Thompson JD, Gibson TJ, Plewniak F, Jeanmougin F, Higgins DG (1997) The ClustalX windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Res 24:4876–4882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wagner DL, Liebherr JK (1992) Flightlessness in insects. Trends Ecol Evol 7:216–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wallwork JA (1973) Zoogeography of some terrestrial micro-arthropoda in Antarctica. Biol Rev 48:233–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yang Z (1994) Maximum likelihood phylogenetic estimation from DNA sequences with variable rates over sites: approximate methods. J Mol Evol 39:306–314CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giuliana Allegrucci
    • 1
  • Gianmaria Carchini
    • 1
  • Valentina Todisco
    • 1
  • Peter Convey
    • 2
  • Valerio Sbordoni
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of Rome “Tor Vergata” via della Ricerca ScientificaRomaItaly
  2. 2.British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research CouncilCambridgeUK

Personalised recommendations