Advertisement

Polar Biology

, Volume 28, Issue 11, pp 862–895 | Cite as

Antarctic icefishes (Channichthyidae): a unique family of fishes. A review, Part I

  • Karl-Hermann Kock
Review

Abstract

Icefish or white-blooded fish are a family of species, unique among vertebrates in that they possess no haemoglobin. With the exception of one species which occurs on the southern Patagonian shelf, icefish live only in the cold-stable and oxygen-rich environment of the Southern Ocean. It is still questionable how old icefish are in evolutionary terms: they may not be older than 6 Ma, i.e. they evolved well after the Southern Ocean started to cool down or they are 15–20 Ma old and started to evolve some time after the formation of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Individuals of most icefish species with the exception of species of the genus Champsocephalus have been found down to 700–800 m depth, a few even down to more than 1,500 m. Icefish have been shown to present organ-level adaptations on different levels to compensate for the ‘disadvantages’ of lacking respiratory pigments. These include a low metabolic rate, well perfused gills, increased blood volume, increased cardiac output, cutaneous uptake of oxygen, increased blood flow with low viscosity, enlarged capillaries, large heart, and increased skin vascularity. Biological features, such as reproduction and growth, are not unique and are comparable to other notothenioids living in the same environment. Icefish produce large yolky eggs which have a diameter of more than 4 mm in most species. Consequently, the number of eggs produced is comparatively small and exceeds 10,000–20,000 eggs in only a few cases. With the exception of species of the genus Champsocephalus which mature at an age of 3 to 4 years, icefish do not attain maturity before they are 5–8 years old. Spawning period of most icefish species is autumn-winter. The incubation period spans from 2 to 3 months in the north of the Southern Ocean to more than 6 months close to the continent. Growth in icefish to the extent it is known is fairly rapid. They grow 6–10 cm in length per annum before they reach spawning maturity. Icefish feed primarily on krill and fish. Some icefish species were abundant enough to be exploited by commercial fisheries, primarily in the 1970s and 1980s with Champsocephalus gunnari as the main target species. Most stocks of this species had been overexploited by the beginning of the 1990s, some had further declined due to natural causes. Other species taken as by-catch species in fisheries were Chaenocephalus aceratus, Pseudochaenichthys georgianus, and Chionodraco rastrospinosus. Chaenodraco wilsoni was the only species exploited on a commercial scale in the high-Antarctic.

Keywords

South Shetland Island Gentoo Penguin Kerguelen Island South Orkney Island Shag Rock 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Acierno R, Macdonald JA, Agnisola C, Tota B (1995) Blood volume in the haemo-globinless Antarctic teleost Chionodraco hamatus (Lönnberg). J Exp Zool 272:407–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alekseeva EL, Alekseev FE (1997) Reproductive biology of mackerel icefish, Champsocephalus gunnari, from the region of South Georgia and Shag Rocks. Vopr Ikthiol 37(3):385–392. Transl as J Ichthyol 37(4):304–311Google Scholar
  3. Andriashev AP (1965) A general review of the Antarctic fish fauna. In: Van Oye P, van Mieghem J (eds) Biogeography and ecology in Antarctic. Monograph Biol 15:491–550, Junk Publ, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  4. Andriashev AP, Neyelov AV (1978) A new white-blooded fish (Chionobathyscus dewitti gen. + sp. nov.) from the bathyal depth of the eastern Antarctic. Morf Sistem Ryb Acad Nauk SSSR, 5–12Google Scholar
  5. Anonymous (1985) Results of research into distribution and status of target species in the convention area—Atlantic, Indian and Pacific sector sectors of the Antarctic. SC-CAMLR Select Sci Pap 1982–84 1:227–327Google Scholar
  6. Anonymous (2001) Notofication of Australia’s intention to continue an exploratory trawl fishery in Division 58.4.2 for Chaenodraco wilsoni, Lepidonotothen kempi, Trematomus eulepidotus and Pleuragramma antarcticum. CCAMLR-XX/5, pp 20 CCAMLR, Hobart, Australia (mimeogr)Google Scholar
  7. Anonymous (2003) Report of the 22nd meeting of the scientific committee, Hobart, Australia, 21–25 October 2003, CCAMLR, Hobart, Australia, pp 1–120Google Scholar
  8. Anonymous (2004) Report of the working group on fish stock assessment. In: Report of the 23rd meeting of the scientific committee, Hobart, Australia, 25–29 October 2004, CCAMLR, Hobart, Australia, Annex 4 341–658Google Scholar
  9. Arana PM, Vega R (1999) Exploratory fishing cruise for Dissostichus spp. in the Antarctic region (Subarea 48.1., 48.2 and 88.2). CCAMLR Sci 6:1–18Google Scholar
  10. Ashford J, White MG (1993) Cross-sectional structure and validation of the timing of annulus formation in otoliths of the Antarctic fish Notothenia coriiceps Richardson (Nototheniidae). Cybium 17:153–163Google Scholar
  11. Baldacci A, Taddei AR, Mazzini M, Fausto AM, Buonocore F, Scapigliati G (2001) Ultrastructure and proteins of the egg chorion of the Antarctic fish Chionodraco hamatus (Teleostei, Notothenioidei. Polar Biol 24:417–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Balguerias E (1989) Informe de resultados “Antartida 8611”. In Resultados de la campaña “Antartida 8611”. Publ Espec Inst Esp Oceanogr, Madrid 2:269–483Google Scholar
  13. Balushkin AV (1996) Similarity of fish of the family Channichthyidae (Notothenioidei, Perciformes), with remarks on the species composition of the family and description of a new species from the Kerguelen archipelago.Vopr Ikthiol 36:5–14, Transl as J Ichthyol 36:1–10Google Scholar
  14. Bargelloni L, Lecointre G (1998) Four years in notothenioid systematics: a phylogenetic perspective. In: di Prisco G, Pisano E, Clarke A (eds) Fishes of Antarctica. Springer, Milano, pp 259–273Google Scholar
  15. Bargelloni L, Ritchie PA, Patarnello T, Battaglia B, Lambert DM, Meyer A (1994) Molecular evolution at subzero temperatures: mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies of fishes from Antarctica (Suborder: Notothenioidei), and the evolution of antifreeze glycopeptides. Mol Biol Evol 11:854–863PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bargelloni L, Patarnello T, Ritchie PA, Battaglia B, Meyer A (1997) Molecular phylogeny and evolution of notothenioid fish based on partial sequences of 12S and 16S ribosomal DNA mitochondrial genes. In: Battaglia B, Valencia J, Walton DWH (eds) Antarctic communities: species, structure and survival. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 45–50Google Scholar
  17. Bargelloni L, Marcato S, Zane L, Patarnello T (2000) Mitochondrial phylogeny of notothenioids: a molecular approach to Antarctic fish evolution and biogeography. Syst Biol 49:114–129CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Barrera - Oro ER, Casaux RJ (1996b) Fish as diet of the blue-eyed shag, Phalacrocorax atriceps bransfieldensis, at Half-moon Island, South Shetland Islands. Cybium 20:37–45Google Scholar
  19. Barrera-Oro ER, Casaux R, Marschoff E (1998) Analysis of the diet of Champsocephalus gunnari at South Georgia in late summer 1994–1997, Dr Eduardo Holmberg surveys. CCAMLR Sci 5:103–124Google Scholar
  20. Barrera–Oro ER, Casaux RJ (1996a) Validation of age determination in Notothenia coriiceps by means of a tag recapture experiment at Potter Cove, South Shetland Islands. Arch Fish Mar Res 43:205–216Google Scholar
  21. Barsukov VV, Permitin YY (1958) A new species of the genus Pagetopsis (family Chaenichthyidae) (in Russian). Zool Zh 37:1409–1411Google Scholar
  22. Bastos-Ramos WP, Hoshino K, Bacila M (2000) Temperature-dependant tonic contraction of smooth muscle in Antarctic fishes Notothenia neglecta and Chaenocephalus aceratus. Role of calcium ions and response to acetocholine. Polar Biosci 13:74–86Google Scholar
  23. Bonner WN, Clarke A, Everson I, Heywood RB, Whitacker TM, White MG (1978) Research on krill in relation to the Southern Ocean ecosystem by British Antarctic Survey. ICES C.M. 1978/L:23, 1–6, ICES, Biological Oceanography Committee, Copenhagen, Denmark (mimeogr)Google Scholar
  24. Boronin VA, Zakharov GP, Shopov VP (1987) Distribution and relative abundance of juvenile icefish (Champsocephalus gunnari) from a trawl survey of the South Georgia shelf in June–July 1985. SC-CAMLR Select Scient Pap 1986, pp 55–63Google Scholar
  25. Bost CA, Koubbi P, Genvois F, Ruchon L, Ridoux V (1994) Gentoo penguin, Pygoscelis papua, diet as an indicator of planktonic availability in the Kerguelen Islands. Polar Biol 14:147–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Boyd I (1993) Pup production and distribution of breeding Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) at South Georgia. Antarct Sci 5(1):17–24Google Scholar
  27. Boyd I, McCafferty DJ, Walker TR (1997) Variation in foraging effort by lactating Antarctic fur seals: response to simulated increased foraging costs. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 40:135–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Brinkmann A (1948) Some new leeches from the Antarctic. Det Norsk Videns Acad Oslo, Scient Res Norv Antarct Exped 1927–28, 29Google Scholar
  29. Burton H, van der Hoof J (2002) Humans and the southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina. Austr Mam 24:127–139Google Scholar
  30. Calvo J, Morriconi E, Rae GA (1999) Reproductive biology of the icefish Champsocephalus esox (Gunther, 1861) (Channichthyidae). Antarct Sci 11:140–149Google Scholar
  31. Carratù L, Gracey AY, Buono S, Maresca B (1998) Do Antarctic fish respond to heat shock? In: di Prisco G, Pisano E, Clarke A (eds) Fishes of Antartica. A biological overview. Springer Milano, pp 111–118Google Scholar
  32. Carvalho GR, Warren M (1991) Genetic population structure of the mackerel icefish, Champsocephalus gunnari, in Antarctic waters. WG-FSA-91/22. CCAMLR, Hobart, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  33. Casaux R, Barrero-Oro E (1993) The diet of blue-eyed shag, Palacrocorax atriceps bransfieldensis feeding in the Bransfield Strait. Antarct Sci 5:335–338Google Scholar
  34. Casaux R, Ramon A (2002) The diet of South Georgia shag, Phalacrocorax georgianus at the South Orkney Islands along five consecutive years. Polar Biol 25:557–561Google Scholar
  35. Casaux R, Faveri M, Coria N, Silva P (1997) Diet of the imperial cormorant, Phalacrocorax atriceps bransfieldensis: comparison of pellets and stomach contents. Mar Ornithol 25:1–4Google Scholar
  36. Casaux R, Baroni A, Carlini A (1998b) The diet of Antarctic fur seals Arctocephalus gazella at Harmony Point, Nelson Island, South Shetland Islands. Polar Biol 20:424–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Casaux R, Barrera-Oro E, Coria N, Carlini A (1998a) Fish as prey of birds and mammals at the South Shetland Islands. In: Wiencke C, Ferreyra G, Arntz W, Rinaldi C (eds) The Potter Cove coastal ecosystem, Antarctica. Ber Polarforsch 299:269–274Google Scholar
  38. Casaux R, Favero M, Silva P, Baroni A (2001) Sex differences in diving depth and diet of Antarctic shags at the South Shetland Islands. J Field Ornith 72:22–29Google Scholar
  39. Casaux R, Baroni A, Ramon A (2003) Diet of Antarctic fur seals Arctocephalus gazella at the Danco Coast, Antarctic Peninsula. Polar Biol 26:49–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. CCAMLR (1990a) Statistical Bulletin 1: pp 61Google Scholar
  41. CCAMLR (1990b) Statistical Bulletin 2: pp 109Google Scholar
  42. CCAMLR (2003) Statistical Bulletin 15: pp 161Google Scholar
  43. Chechun JS (1984) Feeding and food interrelationships of some Sub-Antarctic fishes of the Indian Ocean. USSR Acad Sci Zool Inst Leningr 127:38–68Google Scholar
  44. Chekunova VI (1983) Ecological groups of cold water fishes and their energy metabolism. Vopr Ikthiol 23:829–838. Transl as J Ichthyol 23:111–121Google Scholar
  45. Chen WJ, Bonillo C, Lecointre G (1998) Phylogeny of the Channichthyidae (Notothenioidei, Teleostei) based on two mitochondrial genes. In: di Prisco G, Pisano E, Clarke A (eds) Fishes of Antarctica. A biological overview. Springer, Milano, pp 287–298Google Scholar
  46. Cherel Y, Klages N (1998) A review of the food of albatrosses. In: Robertson G, Gales R (eds) Albatross-biology and conservation. Surrey Beatty and Sons Pty Limited, Chipping Norton, pp 113–136Google Scholar
  47. Cherel Y, Kooyman GL (1998) Food of emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) in the western Ross Sea, Antarctica. Mar Biol 130:335–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Cherel Y, Ridoux V, Rodhouse P (1996) Fish and squid in the diet of king penguin chicks, Aptenodytes patagonicus, during winter on sub-Antarctic Crozet Islands. Mar Biol 126(1–3):559–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Cherel Y, Guinet C, Tremblay Y (1997) Fish prey of Antarctic fur seals, Arctocephalus gazella, at Ile de Croy, Kerguelen. Polar Biol 17(1):87–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Cherel Y, Weimerskirch H, Trouvé C (2000) Food and feeding ecology of the neritic-slope forager black-browed albatross and its relationships with commercial fisheries in Kerguelen. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 207:183–199Google Scholar
  51. Chojnacki J, Palczweski P (1981) Age and growth of Pseudochaenichthys georgianus Norman 1937 (family Chaenichthyidae) of the South Georgia region. Pol Polar Res 2:145–157Google Scholar
  52. Chojnacki J, Pietrucha M (1987) Nutrition and food of white-blooded Antarctic fishes (Chaenocephalus aceratus, Pseudochaenichthys georgianus and Champsocephalus gunnari) (in Polish). Stud Mater Sea Fish Inst Gdynia 28:82–105Google Scholar
  53. Ciardello MA, Camardella L, di Prisco G (1995) Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from the blood cells of two Antarctic teleosts: correlation with cold adaptation. Biochim Biophys Acta 1250:76–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Cielniaszek Z (1981) Charakterystyka eksploatacyjna i biologiczna orkady niebieskiej (Chaenodraco wilsoni) z rejonu morza Scotia w latach 1978 – 1981. In: Sosinski J, Popiel J (eds) Badania Biologii I WielKosci Zasobow Kryla, Ryb Oraz Innych Organiznow Morskich Z Rejonu Antarktyki (in Polish), 95–110Google Scholar
  55. Clarke A (1980) A reappraisal of the concept of metabolic cold adaptation in polar marine invertebrates. Biol J Linnean Soc Lond 14:77–92Google Scholar
  56. Collins M, Xavier J, Reid K, Belchier M, Goss C, Agnew D (2004) Does the current South Georgia ground fish survey accurately estimate the standing stock of mackerel icefish? WG-FSA-SAM-04/20, 24 pp, CCAMLR, Hobart, Australia (mimeogr)Google Scholar
  57. Constable AJ, Williams R, Lamb T (2002) Preliminary assessment of Champsocephalus gunnari on the Heard Island Plateau (Division 58.5.2) based on a survey in May 2002. WG-FSA-02/47, 10 pp, CCAMLR, Hobart, Australia (mimeogr)Google Scholar
  58. Coria N, Libertelli M, Casaux R, Darrieu C (2000) Inter-annual variation in the autumn diet of the Gentoo penguin at Laurie Island, Antarctica. Waterbirds 23:511–517Google Scholar
  59. Croll DA, Tershy BR (1998) Penguins, fur seals and fishing: prey requirements and potential competition in the South Shetland Islands. Polar Biol 19:365–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Croxall JP, North AW, Prince PA (1989) Fish prey in the diet of the wandering albatross Diomedea exulans at South Georgia. Polar Biol 9:9–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Daneri GA (1996) Fish diet of the Antarctic fur seal, Arctocephalus gazella, in summer at Stranger Point, King George Island, South Shetland Islands. Polar Biol 16:353–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Daneri GA, Carlini AR (1999) Spring and summer predation on fish by the Antarctic fur seal, Arctocephalus gazella, King George Island, South Shetland Islands. Can J Zool 77(7):1157–1160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Daneri GA, Carlini AR (2001) Predation of fish by the southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina, at King George Island, South Shetland Islands, as reflected by stomach lavage. WG-EMM-01/58, 6 pp, CCAMLR, Hobart, Australia (mimeogr)Google Scholar
  64. Daneri GA, Carlini AR (2002) Fish prey of southern elephant seals, Mirounga leonine, at King Georgie Island. Polar Biol 25:739–743Google Scholar
  65. Daneri GA, Coria NR (1993) Fish prey of Antarctic fur seals, Arctocephalus gazella, during the summer–autumn period period at Laurie Island, South Orkney Islands. Polar Biol 13:287–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Derome N, Chen WJ, Dettai A, Bonillo C, Lecointre G (2002) Phylogeny of Antarctic dragonfish (Bathydraconidae, Teleostei) and related families based on their anatomy and two mitochondrial genes. Mol Phyl Evol 24:139–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Detrich HW III (2003) Recent evolution of the hemoglobinless condition of the Antarctic icefishes. In: di Prisco G, Giardina B, Weber RE (eds) Hemoglobin function in vertebrates. Molecular adaptations in extreme and temperate environments. Springer, Milano, pp 39–49Google Scholar
  68. Dettaï A, Lecointre G (2004) In search of notothenioid (Teleostei) relatives. Antarct Sci 16(1):71–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. DeWitt HH, Mc Cleave JD, Dearborn JH (1976) Ecological studies on fishes and echinoderms during ARA Islas Orcadas cruise 5. Antarct J U S 11:49–53Google Scholar
  70. DeWitt HH, Hureau, JC (1979) Fishes collected during ‘Hero’ cruise 72–2 in the Palmer Archipelago, Antarctica, with the description of two new genera and three new species. Bull Mus Natl Hist nat Paris, 4e ser, 1, section A (3):775–820Google Scholar
  71. di Prisco G (1997) Physiological and biochemical adaptations in fish to a cold marine environment. In: Battaglia B, Valencia J, Walton DWH (eds) Antarctic communities: species structure and survival. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 251–260Google Scholar
  72. di Prisco G (1998) Molecular adaptation of Antarctic fish haemoglobins. In: di Prisco G, Pisano E, Clarke A (eds) Fishes of Antarctica. A biological overview. Springer, Milano, pp 339–353Google Scholar
  73. di Prisco G, D’Avino R (1989) Molecular adaptation of the blood of Antarctic teleosts to environmental conditions. Antarct Sci 1:119–124Google Scholar
  74. di Prisco G, Giardina B (2003) Molecular aspects of temperature adaptation. In: di Prisco G, Giardina B, Weber RE (eds) Hemoglobin function in vertebrates. Molecular adaptations in extreme and temperate environments. Springer, Milano, pp 1–21Google Scholar
  75. di Prisco G, Cocca E, Parker SK, Detrich HW III (2002) Tracking the evolutionary loss of haemoglobin expression by the white-blooded Antarctic icefishes. Gene 295:185–191CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Douglas EL, Peterson KS, Gysi JR, Chapman DJ (1985) Myoglobin in the heart tissue of fishes lacking myoglobin. Comp Biochem Physiol 81A:885–888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Dubrovskaya TA, Makarov OE (1969) Techno-chemical characteristics and utilization for food of fishes of the Scotia Sea (in Russian). Trudy VNIRO 66:311–317Google Scholar
  78. Duhamel G (1981) Characteristiques biologiques des principales espèces de poisons du plateau continental des Iles Kerguelen. Cybium 5(1):19–32Google Scholar
  79. Duhamel G (1987) Ichtyofaune des secteurs indien occidental et atlantique oriental de l’océean austral: biogeography, cycles biologiques et dynamique des populations. Thèse de doctorat d’etat. Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, p 687Google Scholar
  80. Duhamel G (1991) The biological and demographic pecularities of the icefish Champsocephalus gunnari Lönnberg, 1905 from the Kerguelen Plateau. In: di Prisco G, Maresca B, Tota B (eds) Biology of Antarctic fish. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 40–53Google Scholar
  81. Duhamel G (1995) New data on spawning, hatching and growth of Champsocephalus gunnari on the shelf of Kerguelen Islands. CCAMLR Sci 2:21–34Google Scholar
  82. Duhamel G, Agnew DJ (1990) A re-analysis of the Kerguelen shelf and Skif Bank stocks of Champsocephalus gunnari. WG-FSA-90/17, 10 pp, CCAMLR, Hobart, Australia (mimeogr)Google Scholar
  83. Duhamel G, Claudet J (2002) Preliminary analysis on the Kerguelen shelf icefish Champsocephalus gunnari stock from 1996/97 to 2000/01: no evidence in the recovery. WG-FSA-02/65, 9 pp, CCAMLR, Hobart, Australia, (mimeogr)Google Scholar
  84. Duhamel G, Hureau JC (1985) The role of zooplankton in the diet of certain sub-Antarctic marine fish. In: Siegfried WR, Condy PR, Laws RM (eds) Antarctic nutrient cycles and food webs. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, pp 421–436Google Scholar
  85. Duhamel G, Kock KH, Balguerias E, Hureau JC (1993) Reproduction in fish of the Weddell Sea Polar Biol 13:193–200Google Scholar
  86. Duhamel G, Ozouf-Costaz C, Cattaneo-Berrebi G, Berrebi P (1995) Interpopulation relationships in two species of Antarctic fish, Notothenia rossii and Champsocephalus gunnari from the Kerguelen Islands: an allozyme study. Antarct Sci 7:351–356Google Scholar
  87. Eastman JT (1993) Antarctic fish biology. Evolution in a unique environment. Academic Press, San Diego, p 322Google Scholar
  88. Eastman JT (1999) Aspects of the biology of the icefish Dacodraco hunteri (Notothenioidei, Channichthyidae) in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Polar Biol 21:194–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Eastman JT (2005) The nature of the diversity of Antarctic fishes. Polar Biol 28:93–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Eastman JT, Clarke A (1998) A comparison of adaptive radiation of Antarctic fish with those on nonAntarctic fish. In: di Prisco G, Pisano E, Clarke A (eds) Fishes of Antarctica. Springer, Milano, pp 3–26Google Scholar
  91. Eastman JT, Eakin RR (2000) An updated species list for notothenioid fishes (Perciformes, Notothenioidei) with comments on Antarctic species. Arch Fish Mar Res 48:11–20Google Scholar
  92. Eastman JT, Hubold G (1999) The fish fauna of the Ross Sea. Antarct Sci 11:293–304Google Scholar
  93. Eastman JT, Lannoo MJ (2004) Brain and sense organ anatomy and histology in hemoglobinless Antarctic icefishes (Perciformes: Notothenioidei: Channichthyidae). J Morphol 260:117–140CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Eastman JT, McCune AR (2000) Fishes of the Antarctic continental shelf: evolution of a marine species flock ? J Fish Biol 57(Suppl A):84–102Google Scholar
  95. Eastman JT, Sidell BD (2002) Measurements of buoyancy for some Antarctic notothenioid fishes from the South Shetland Islands. Polar Biol 25:753–760Google Scholar
  96. Eggington S (1994) Stress response in two Antarctic teleosts (Chaenocephalus aceratus Lönnberg and Notothenia neglecta Nybelin) following capture and surgery. J Comp Physiol B 164:482–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Eggington S (1996) Blood rheology of Antarctic fishes: viscosity adaptations at very low temperature. J Fish Biol 48:513–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Eggington S, Davison W (1998) Effects of environmental and experimental stress on Antarctic fish. In: Pörtner HO, Playle RC (eds) Cold ocean physiology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 299–326Google Scholar
  99. Egginton S, Stilbeck C, Hoofd L, Calvo J, Johnston IA (2002) Peripheral oxygen transport in skeletal muscle of Antarctic and sub-Antarctic notothenioid fish. J Exp Biol 205:769–779PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Ekau W (1990) Demersal fish fauna of the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Antarct Sci 2:129–137Google Scholar
  101. Ekau W (1991) Reproduction in high Antarctic fishes (Notothenioidei). Meeresforsch 33:159–167Google Scholar
  102. Emison WB (1968) Feeding preference of the Adelie penguin at Cape Crozier, Ross Island. Antarct Res Ser Wash 12:191–212Google Scholar
  103. Everson I, Kock KH (2001) Variations in condition indices of mackerel icefish at South Georgia from 1972 to 1997. CCAMLR Sci 8:119–132Google Scholar
  104. Everson I, Ralph R (1968) Blood analysis of some Antarctic fishes. Br Antarct Surv Bull 15:59–62Google Scholar
  105. Everson I, Parkes G, Kock KH, Campbell S, Wilhelms S, Goss C, Cielniaszek Z, Szlakowski J (1992) Results of the UK Demersal Fish Survey in Subarea 48.3. WG-FSA-92/17, 40 pp, CCAMLR, Hobart, Australia (mimeogr)Google Scholar
  106. Everson I, Kock KH, Parkes G (1996) Ovarian development associated with first maturity in three Antarctic channichthyid species. J Fish Biol 49:1019–1026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Everson I, Parkes G, Kock KH, Boyd I (1999) Variations in standing stock of the mackerel icefish Champsocephalus gunnari at South Georgia. J Appl Ecol 36:591–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Everson I, Kock KH, Ellison J (2000a) Inter-annual variation in the gonad cycle of the mackerel icefish. J Fish Biol 57(Suppl A):103–111Google Scholar
  109. Everson I, North AW, Paul A, Cooper R, Mc Williams NC, Kock KH (2001) Spawning locations of mackerel icefish at South Georgia. CCAMLR Sci 8:107–118Google Scholar
  110. Evseenko S (1993) Larval and juvenile fish from collections made under the ice of the Weddell Sea. Vopr Ikthiol 33:724–727. Transl as J Ichthyol 34:128–133Google Scholar
  111. Faveri M, Casaux R, Silva P, Barrera-Oro E, Coria N (1998) The diet of the Antarctic shag during summer at Nelson Island, Antarctica. Condor 100:112–118Google Scholar
  112. Feller G, Gerday C (1997) Adaptations of the haemoglobinless Antarctic icefish (Channichthyidae) to hypoxia tolerance. Comp Biochem Physiol 118A:981–987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Feller G, Goessens G, Gerday C, Bassleer R (1985) Heart structure and ventricular ultrastructure of hemoglobin and myoglobin-free icefish Channichthys rhinoceratus. Cell Tiss Res 242:669–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Field PA, Houseman DE (2004) Decreases in activation energy and substrate affinity in cold adapted A4-lactate dehydrogenase: evidence from the Antarctic notothenioid fish Chaenocephalus aceratus. Mol Biol Evol 21(12):2246–2255CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Fitch NA, Johnston IA, Wood RE (1984) Skeletal muscle capillary supply in a fish that lacks respiratory pigment. Resp Physiol 57:201–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Flores H, Kock KH, Wilhelms S, Jones CD (2004) Diet of two icefish species from the South Shetland Islands and Elephant Island, Champsocephalus gunnari and Chaenocephalus aceratus. Polar Biol 27:119–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Frolkina ZhA (1989) Methods of age determination for mackerel icefish (Champsocephalus gunnari Lönnberg 1905) from the South Georgia island shelf. Select Scient Pap 1989 (SC-CAMLR SSP/6), 37 – 50, CCAMLR, Hobart, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  118. Frolkina ZhA (1999) Distribution and some biological features of icefish (Champsocephalus gunnari) at different life cycle stages in the South Georgia Subarea. WG-FSA99/65, 55 pp, CCAMLR, Hobart, Australia (mimeogr)Google Scholar
  119. Frolkina ZhA (2001) Age length composition of mackerel icefish from the South Georgia shelf. CCAMLR Sci 8:133–146Google Scholar
  120. Frolkina ZhA (2002) Distribution of mackerel icefish (Champsocephalus gunnari) (Channichthyidae) around South Georgia at various stages of its life cycle. CCAMLR Sci 9:49–69Google Scholar
  121. Frolkina ZhA (2003) Daily vertical migrations of mackerel icefish Champsocephalus gunnari off South Georgia Island and its annual distribution by depths. Vopr Ikthiol 43:96–105 Transl as J Ichthyol 43:159–165Google Scholar
  122. Frolkina ZhA, Dorovskikh RS (1989) On assessment of von Bertalanffy growth equation parameters and instantenous natural mortality rate of South Georgia mackerel icefish. Select Scient Pap (SC-CAMLR SSP6), 29 – 36, CCAMLR, Hobart, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  123. Frolkina ZhA, Dorovskikh RS (2001) On assessment of instantenous natural mortality rate of mackerel icefish (Champsocephalus gunnari) from South Georgia subarea. WAMI-01/7, 8 pp, CCAMLR, Hobart, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  124. Frolkina ZhA, Kasatkina SM (2001) Possible causes of variation of Champsocephalus gunnari vertical and horizontal distribution. WAMI-01/8, 21 pp, CCAMLR, Hobart, Australia (mimeogr)Google Scholar
  125. Frolkina ZhA, Shlibanov VI (1991) Vertical migrations of mackerel icefish (Champsocephalus gunnari) on the South Georgia shelf. Select Scient Pap (SC-CAMLR SSP/8), CCAMLR, Hobart, Australia, pp 3–14Google Scholar
  126. Frolkina ZhA, Trunov IA (2004) Population structure of icefish (Champsocephalus gunnari) in the South Georgia area (Antarctic). WG-FSA-04/40, CCAMLR, Hobart, Australia, 18 pp (mimeogr)Google Scholar
  127. Frolkina ZhA, Latogurskij VI, Sushin VA (1992) By-catch of juvenile Champsocephalus gunnari in krill fishery on the shelf of South Georgia Island. WG-FSA-92/6, CCAMLR, Hobart, Australia, 20 pp (mimeogr)Google Scholar
  128. Frolkina ZhA, Konstantinova MP, Trunov IA (1998) Composition and characteristics of ichthyofauna in pelagic waters of South Georgia (Subarea 48.3). CCAMLR Sci 5:125–168Google Scholar
  129. Gales NJ, Klages NTW, Williams R, Woehler EJ (1990 The diet of emperor penguin, Aptenodytes forsteri, in Amanda Bay, Princess Elizabeth Land, Antarctica. Antarct Sci 2(1):23–28Google Scholar
  130. Garcia de la Rosa SB, Sanchez F, Figueroa D (1997) Comparative feeding ecology of Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides) in the southwestern Atlantic. CCAMLR Sci 5:105–124Google Scholar
  131. Gasyukov P, Shust KV, Everson I (2002) Progress report on age determination of mackerel icefish using otoliths. WG-FSA-02/57, 1 pp, CCAMLR, Hobart, Australia (mimeogr)Google Scholar
  132. Gerasimchook VV (1989) On the sexual dimorphism of white-blooded fishes Chaenodraco wilsoni and Chionodraco hamatus (Channichthyidae, Perciformes). Zool Zhurn 68:142–146Google Scholar
  133. Gerasimchook VV, Trozenko BG (1988) On the ecology of Chaenodraco wilsoni Regan, 1914 (Channichthyidae, Perciformes). Antarktika 27:191–202Google Scholar
  134. Gerasimchook VV, Brodin VV, Kljausov AV, Russelo JB, Tishkov PV, Zaremba NB (1987) Brief report of the joint Soviet-Australian expedition of the USSR FRV ‘Profesor Mesyatsev’ to the Australian fishing zone around the territory of Heard and McDonald Islands, May–August 1987. Select Sci Pap (SC-CAMLR-SSP/4) 1987, pp 75–103Google Scholar
  135. Giardina B, Mordente A, Zappacosta B, Calla C, Colacicco ML, Gozza ML, Lippa S (1998) the oxidative metabolism of Antarctic fish: some peculiar aspects of cold adaptation. In: di Prisco G, Pisano E, Clarke A (eds) Fishes of Antarctica. A biological overview, Springer, Milano, pp 129–138Google Scholar
  136. Goebel ME, Sterling JT, Costa DP, Cobb WT, Thorson PH, Carten T, Trivelpiece WZ, Holt RS (1998) Pinniped research at Cape Shirreff, Livingston Island, Antarctica, 1997/98. AMLR 1997/98. Field Season Report, NOAA/NMFS Administrative Report LJ-98-07, 131 – 139Google Scholar
  137. Goebel ME, Lyons JJ, Parker BW, Lipsky JD, Allen AC (2003) Pinniped research at Cape Shireff, Livingston Island, Antarctica, 2001–2002. Field Season Report, NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC 350:113–133Google Scholar
  138. Gon O, Klages NT (1988) The marine fish fauna of the sub-Antarctic Prince Edward Islands. S Afr J Antarct Res 18:32–54Google Scholar
  139. Green K (1986a) Food of the emperor penguin Aptenodytes forsteri on the Antarctic fast ice edge in late winter and early spring. Polar Biol 6:187–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Green K (1986b) Food of the cape pigeon (Daption capense) from Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica. Notornis 33:151–154Google Scholar
  141. Green K, Burton HR (1987) Seasonal and geographical variation in the food of Weddell seals, Leptonychotes weddellii, in Antarctica. Aust Wildl Res 14:475–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Green K, Burton HR (1993) Comparison of stomach contents of southern elephant seals, Mirounga leonina, at Macquarie and Heard Island. Mar Mam Sci 9(1):10–22Google Scholar
  143. Green K, Johnstone GW (1988) Changes in the diet of Adelie penguins breeding in East Antarctica. Aust Wildl Res 15:103–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Green K, Williams R (1986) Observations on food remains in faeces of elephant, leopard and crabeater seals. Polar Biol 6:43–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Green K, Burton HR, Williams R (1989) The diet of Antarctic fur seals Arctocephalus gazella (Peters) during the breeding season at Heard Island. Antarct Sci 1(4):317–324Google Scholar
  146. Green K, Williams R, Burton HR (1991) The diet of Antarctic fur seals during the late autumn and early winter around Heard Island. Antarct Sci 3:359–361Google Scholar
  147. Green K, Slip DJ, Morre GJ (1998) The take of fish species by seabirds and marine mammals in the Australian fishing zone around Heard Island: the potential for competition with a commercial fishery. Polar Biol 20(4):273–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Gröhsler T (1992) Nahrungsökologische Untersuchungen an antarktischen Fischen um Elephant Island unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Südwinters. Mitt Inst Seefisch Hamb 47:1–296Google Scholar
  149. Grove TJ, Hendrickson JW, Sidell BD (2004) Two species of Antarctic icefishes (genus Champsocephalus) share a common genetic lesion leading to the loss of myoglobin expression. Polar Biol 27:579–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Gubsch G (1980) Untersuchungen zur Altersbestimmung und zum Wachstum beim Eisfisch Chaenocephalus aceratus Lönnberg. Fischerei Forsch 18:7–10Google Scholar
  151. Gubsch G (1982) Zur Verbreitung und zur Biologie der Eisfische (Chaenichthyidae) im atlantischen Sektor der Antarktis. Fischerei Forsch 20:39–47Google Scholar
  152. Gubsch G, Hoffmann U (1981) Forschungsreise eines Zubringertrawlers in die Antarktis. Fischerei Forsch 19:31–34Google Scholar
  153. Guinet C, Cherel Y, Ridoux V, Jouventin P (1996) Consumption of marine resources by seabirds and seals at Crozet and Kerguelen waters: changes in relation to consumer biomass 1962 – 85. Antarct Sci 8:23–30Google Scholar
  154. Guinet C, Dubroca L, Lea M, Goldsworthy S, Cherel Y, Duhamel G, Donnay JP (2001) Spatial distribution of foraging in female Arctocephalus gazella in relation to oceanographic variables: a scale dependent approach using geographic information system. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 219:251–264Google Scholar
  155. Hagen W, Kattner G, Terbrüggen A, Van Vleet ES (2001) Lipid metabolism of the Antarctic krill Euphausia superba and its ecological implications. Mar Biol 139:95–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Hall-Aspland SA, Rogers TL (2004) Summer diet of leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx) in Prydz Bay, Eastern Antarctica. Polar Biol 27(12):729–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Hamoir G (1988) Biochemical adaptations of the muscles of the Channichthyidae to their lack in haemoglobin and myoglobin. Comp Biochem Physiol 90B:557–559Google Scholar
  158. Hanchett S, Horn PL, Stevenson ML, McL Smith NW (2002) The New Zealand toothfish fishery in Subarea 88.1 and 88.2 from 1997–1998 to 2001–2002. WG-FSA-02/38, 20 pp., CCAMLR, Hobart, Australia (mimeogr)Google Scholar
  159. Harangozo SA (2000) A search for ENSO telecommunications in the West Antarctic Peninsula climate in austral winter. Int J Climatol 20:663–679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Harrison P, Zummo G, Farina F, Tota B, Johnston I A (1991) Gross anatomy, myoarchitecture, and ultrastructure of the heart ventricle in the haemoglobinless icefish Chaenocephalus aceratus. Can J Zool 69:1339–1347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Hecht T (1990) Otoliths. An introduction to their morphology and use in the identification of Southern Ocean fishes. In: Gon O, Heemstra PC (eds) Fishes of the Southern Ocean. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, pp 65–69Google Scholar
  162. Hemmingsen EA (1991) Respiratory and cardiovascular adaptations in hemoglobin-free fishes: resolved and unresolved problems. In: di Prisco G, Maresca B, Tota B (eds) Biology of Antarctic fish. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 191–203Google Scholar
  163. Hemmingsen EA, Douglas EL (1970) Respiratory characteristics of the hemoglobin-free fish Chaenocephalus aceratus. Comp Biochem Physiol 33:733–744CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Hemmingsen EA, Douglas EL (1972) Respiratory and circulatory responses in a hemoglobin-free fish Chaenocephalus aceratus to changes in temperature and oxygen tension. Comp Biochem Physiol 43A:1031–1043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Hemmingsen EA, Douglas EL (1977) Respiratory and circulatory adaptations to the absence of hemoglobin in channichthyid fishes. In: Llano GA (ed) Adaptations within Antarctic Ecosystems. Smithsonian Institution Washington, pp 479–484Google Scholar
  166. Hindell MA (1989) The diet of gentoo penguins Pygoscelis papua at Macquarie Island: Winter and early breeding season. Emu 89:71–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Holeton GF (1970) Oxygen uptake and circulation by a haemoglobinless Antarctic fish (Chaenocephalus aceratus Lönnberg) compared with three red-blooded Antarctic fish. Comp Biochem Physiol 34:457–471CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Hoogesteger JN, White MG (1981) Noters on parasite infestation of inshore fish at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands. Brit Antarct Surv Bull 54:23–31Google Scholar
  169. Horn PL (2002) Age and growth of Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides) and Antarctic toothfish (D. mawsoni) in waters from the New Zealand subantarctic to the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Fish Res 56:275–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Hureau JC (1966) Biologie de Chaenichthys rhinoceratus Richardson et problèm de sang incolore des Chaenichthyidae, poissons des mers antarctiques. Bull Soc Zool France 91:735–751Google Scholar
  171. Hureau JC (1985) Channichthyidae. In: FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Southern Ocean (Fishing Areas 48, 58 and 88 – CCAMLR Convention Area). FAO Rome 2:233–399Google Scholar
  172. Hureau JC, Petit D, Fine JM, Marmeux M (1977) New cytological, biochemical, and physiological data on the colourless blood of the Chaenichthyidae (Pisces, Teleosteans, Perciformes). In: Llano GA (ed) Adaptations within Antarctic Ecosystems. Smithsonian Institution Washington, pp 459–477Google Scholar
  173. Hureau JC, Balguerias E, Duhamel G, Kock KH, Ozouf-Costaz C, White MG (1990) Fish fauna of the eastern Weddell Sea. In: Arntz W, Ernst W, Hempel I (eds) The Expedition Antarktis VII/4 (EPOS leg 3) and VII/5 of RV ‘Polarstern’ in 1989. Ber Polarforsch 68:130–138Google Scholar
  174. Icardo JM, Colvee E, Cerra MC, Tota B (1999) Bulbus arteriosus of the Antarctic teleosts. I. the white-blooded Chionodraco hamatus. Anat Rec 254(3):396–407CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Isla MS (1993) Feeding habits of Champsocephalus esox (Pisces, Channichthyidae) from Beagle Channel, Argentina. Nat Patagon Cienc Biol 1:85–92Google Scholar
  176. Iwami T (1985) Osteology and relationships of the family Channichthyidae. Mem Natl Inst Polar Res Tokyo, Ser E 36:1–69Google Scholar
  177. Iwami T, Abe T (1981) Sexual dimorphism observed in Chionodraco myersi De Witt and Tyler. Antarct Rec 73:30–36Google Scholar
  178. Iwami T, Kock KH (1990) Channichthyidae. In: Gon O, Heemstra PC (eds) Fishes of the Southern Ocean. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown JLB, pp 381–399Google Scholar
  179. Iwami T, Cielniaszek J, Pakhomov EA (1996) Results on by-catch of fish during Ukrainian, Polish and Japanese krill fishery in the South Orkney Islands, South Georgia and Shetland Islands areas. WG-FSA-96/19, 20 pp, CCAMLR, Hobart, Australia (mimeogr)Google Scholar
  180. Jablonski B (1985) The diet of penguins on King George Island, South Shetland Islands. Acta Zool Crac 29:117–186Google Scholar
  181. Jakubowski M (1982) Dimensions of respiratory of the gills and skin in the Antarctic white-blooded fish, Chaenocephalus aceratus Lönnberg (Chaenichthyidae). Z mikrosk – anatom Forsch Leipzig 96:145–156Google Scholar
  182. Jakubowski M, Byczkowska-Smyk W, Mikhalev Yu (1969) Vacularization and size of the respiratory surfaces in the Antarctic white – blooded fish, Chaenichthys rugosus Regan (Percoidei, Chaenichthyidae). Zool Pol 19:303–317Google Scholar
  183. Johnston IA (1989) Muscles and activity metabolism in Antarctic fish: a review. In: Heywood RB (ed) Antarctic Special Topic, University Research in Antarctica. British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge UK, pp 65–76Google Scholar
  184. Johnston IA (2003) Muscle metabolism and growth in Antarctic fishes (suborder Notothenioidei): evolution in a cold environment. Comp Biochem Physiol Part B 136:701–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Johnston IA, Fitch N, Zummo G, Wood RE, Harrison P, Tota B (1983) Morphometric and ultrastructural features of the ventricular myocardium of the haemoglobinless icefish Chaenocephalus aceratus. Comp Biochem Physiol 76A:475–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Johnston IA, Fernandez DA, Calvo J, Vieira VLA, North AW, Abercromby M, Garland T (2003) Reduction in muscle fibre number during adaptive radiation in notothenioid fishes: a phylogenetic perspective. J Exp Biol 206:2595–2609CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Jones CD, Kock KH, Balguerias E (2000) Changes in biomass of eight species of finfish around the South Orkney Islands (Subarea 48.2) from three bottom trawl surveys. CCAMLR Sci 7:53–74Google Scholar
  188. Jones CD, Kock KH, Ramm D, Ashford J, Wilhelms S, Near T, Gong N, Flores H (2001) Results and standing stock biomass estimation of finfish from the 2001 US AMLR bottom trawl survey of the South Shetland Islands (Subarea 48.1). WG-FSA-01/33 Rev. 1, CCAMLR, Hobart, Australia, 44 pp (mimeogr)Google Scholar
  189. Jones CD, Kock KH, Ashford J, DeVries AL, Dietrich K, Hanchett S, Near T, Turk T, Wilhelms S (2003) Standing stock, biology, diet and spatial distribution of demersal finfish from the 2003 US AMLR bottom trawl survey of the South Shetland Islands (Subarea 48.1). WG-FSA-03/38, CCAMLR, Hobart, Australia, 40 pp (mimeogr)Google Scholar
  190. Jouventin P, Weimerskirch H (1990) Long-term changes in seabird and seal populations in the Southern Ocean. In: Kerry KR, Hempel G (eds) Antarctic ecosystems. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 208–213Google Scholar
  191. Kanaeva IP, Marti YuYu, Permitin YuYe (1969) Food chains in the Scotia Sea (in Russian). Trudy VNIRO 66:267–275Google Scholar
  192. Kawaguchi K, Ishikawa S, Matsuda O, Naito Y (1989) Tagging experiments of nototheniid fish Trematomus bernacchii Boulenger under the coastal fast ice in Lützow-Holm Bay, Antarctica. Proc NIPR Symp Polar Biol 2:111–116Google Scholar
  193. Kellermann A (1989) Food and feeding ecology of early stage Chionodraco rastrospinosus De Witt and Hureau 1979 off the Antarctic Peninsula. Pesq Antart Bras 1:25–30Google Scholar
  194. Kellermann A (1990) Catalogue of early life stages of Antarctic notothenioid fish. Ber Polarforsch 67:45–136Google Scholar
  195. Kellermann A (1996) Midwater fish ecology. In: Ross RM, Hofmann E, Quetin LB (eds) Foundation for Antarctic Research west of the Antarctic Peninsula. Antarctic Research Series Vol 70:231–256Google Scholar
  196. Kellermann A, Kock KH (1984) Postlarval and juvenile notothenioids (Pisces, Perciformes) in the Southern Scotia Sea and Northern Weddell Sea during FIBEX 1981. Meeresforsch 30:82–93Google Scholar
  197. Kellermann AK, Gauldie RW, Ruzicka JJ (2002) Otolith microincrements in the Antarctic fishes Notothenia coriiceps and Pseudochaenichthys georgianus. Polar Biol 25:799–877Google Scholar
  198. Kennett JP (1982) Marine geology. Prentice-Hall, Engleworth CliffsGoogle Scholar
  199. Kent S, Seddon J, Robertson G, Wiencke B (1998) Diet of Adelie penguins Pygoscelis adeliae, at Shirley Island, East Antarctica, January 1992. Mar Ornith 26:7–10Google Scholar
  200. Kirkman SP, Wilson W, Klages NTW, Bester MN, Isaksen K (2000) Diet and estimated food consumption of Antarctic fur seals at Bouvetøya during summer. Polar Biol 23:745–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Klages NTW, Gales RP, Pemberton D (1989) The dietary segregation of macaroni and rockhopper penguins at Heard Island. Aust Wildl Res 16:599–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Klages NTW, Pemberton D, Gales RP (1990) The diets of king and gentoo penguin at Heard Island. Aust Wildl Res 17:53–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Klöser H, Plötz J, Palm H, Bartsch A, Hubold G (1992) Adjustment of anisakid nematode life cycles to the high Antarctic food web as shown by Contracaecum radiatum and C. osculatum in the Weddell Sea. Antarct Sci 4:171–178Google Scholar
  204. Kochkin PN (1985) Analysis of registering structures and linear growth of the pike glassfish Champsocephalus gunnari Lönnberg (Chaenichthyidae). Vopr Ikthiol 25 :834–842 Transl as J Ichthyol 25:110–119Google Scholar
  205. Kochkin PN (1986) Analysis of the age sensitive structure and linear growth in the pike glassfish Champsocephalus gunnari (Channichthyidae). Vopr Ikthiol 25:110–119 Transl as J Ichthyol 25:834–842Google Scholar
  206. Kochkin PN (1989) On growth rate of icefish Champsocephalus gunnari Lönnberg 1905 (Channichthyidae) off the South Georgia Island (in Russian). Antarktika 28:169–179Google Scholar
  207. Kochkin PN (1990) Age determination of Champsocephalus gunnari Lönnberg 1905 (Channichthyidae) taken in the South Georgia area in 1990. SC-CAMLR Select Scient Pap 1990 (SC-CAMLR SSP/7) 285 – 294Google Scholar
  208. Kock KH (1978) Fischereibiologische Untersuchungen. In: Antarktis – Expedition 1975/76 der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Sahrhage D, Schreiber W, Steinberg R, Hempel G (eds), Arch FischWiss 29 (Beih 1):41–57Google Scholar
  209. Kock KH (1980) Graphical analysis of length frequency distribution of Champsocephalus gunnari Lönnberg (Channichthyidae) from South Georgia. Cybium 8:33–42Google Scholar
  210. Kock KH (1981) Fischereibiologische Untersuchungen an drei antarktischen Fischarten: Champsocephalus gunnari Lönnberg 1905, Chaenocephalus aceratus (Lönnberg, 1906) und Pseudochaenichthys georgianus Norman 1937 (Notothenioidei, Channichthyidae). Mitt Inst Seefisch Hamb 32:1–226Google Scholar
  211. Kock K-H (1982) Fischereibiologische Untersuchungen bei Elephant Island im März 1981. Arch FischWiss 33 (Supplement1):127–142Google Scholar
  212. Kock KH (1989b) Reproduction in Antarctic fish around Elephant Island. Arch FischWiss 39:171–210Google Scholar
  213. Kock KH (1989a) Results of the CCAMLR Antarctic fish otoliths/scales/bones exchange system. Select Scient Pap 1989 (SC-CAMLR-SSP/6): 197–226Google Scholar
  214. Kock KH (1990) Reproduction of the mackerel icefish (Champsocephalus gunnari) and its implications for fisheries management in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. Select Sci Pap 1989 (SC-CAMLR SSP/6), 51–68Google Scholar
  215. Kock KH (1991) The state of exploited fish stocks in the Southern Ocean—a review. Arch FischWiss 41:1–66Google Scholar
  216. Kock KH (1992) Antarctic fish and fisheries. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 359Google Scholar
  217. Kock KH, Everson I (2003) Shedding new light on the life cycle of mackerel icefish in the Southern Ocean. J Fish Biol 63:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Kock KH, Jones CD (2002) The biology of the icefish Cryodraco antarcticus Dollo, 1900 (Pisces, Channichthyidae) in the southern Scotia Arc (Antarctica). Polar Biol 25:416–424Google Scholar
  219. Kock KH, Jones CD (2005) Fish stocks in the southern Scotia Arc region—a review and prospects for future research. Rev Fish Res (accepted)Google Scholar
  220. Kock KH, Kellermann A (1991) Reproduction in Antarctic notothenioid fish—a review. Antarct Sci 3:125–150Google Scholar
  221. Kock K-H, Schneppenheim R, Siegel V (1984) A contribution to the fish fauna of the Weddell Sea. Arch FischWiss 34(2/3):103–120Google Scholar
  222. Kock KH, Duhamel G, Hureau JC (1985) Biology and status of exploited Antarctic fish stocks: a review. BIOMASS Scient Ser 6:1–143Google Scholar
  223. Kock KH, Wilhelms S, Everson I, Gröger J (1994a) Variation in the diet composition and feeding intensity of mackerel icefish Champsocephalus gunnari at South Georgia. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 108:43–57Google Scholar
  224. Kock KH, Everson I, Allcock L, Parkes G, Harm U, Goss C, Daly H, Cielniaszek Z, Szlakowski J (1994b) The diet composition and feeding intensity of mackerel icefish (Champsocephalus gunnari) at South Georgia in January/February 1994. WG-FSA-94/15, 24 pp, CCAMLR, Hobart, Australia (mimeogr)Google Scholar
  225. Kock KH, Döllefeld L, Hulley PA, Jährig H, Petzel W, Pusch C, Siegel V, White MG (1998) The composition of the fish fauna of the northern slope of King George Island. Ber Polarforsch 274:14–17Google Scholar
  226. Kock KH, Jones CD, Wilhelms S (2000) Biological characteristics of Antarctic fish stocks in the southern Scotia Arc region. CCAMLR Sci 7:1–41Google Scholar
  227. Kock KH, Jones CD, Appel J, Bertouch Gv, Doolittle DF, la Mesa M, Pshenichnov L, Riehl R, Romeo T, Schöling S, Zane L (2002) Standing stock estimates of finfish biomass from the 2002 ‘Polarstern’ bottom trawl survey around Elephant Island and the South Shetland Islands (Subarea 48.1) with some notes on the composition of catches taken north of Joinville Island - D’Urville Island. WG-FSA-02/24, 29 pp., CCAMLR, Hobart Australia (mimeogr)Google Scholar
  228. Kock KH, Pshenichnov L, Jones CD, Shust KV, Skora KE, Frolkina ZhA (2004) The area north of Joinville-D’Urville Islands (Subarea 48.1)—a former fishing ground at the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula—revisited. CCAMLR Sci 11:1–20Google Scholar
  229. Kompowski A (1990) Studies on the composition of the stock of Chaenocephalus aceratus (Lönnberg, 1906), Pisces, Channichthyidae, in the region of South Georgia and South Shetlands. Acta Ichthyol Piscat 20:29–44Google Scholar
  230. Koubbi P, Ibanez F, Duhamel G (1991) Environmental influences on spatio-temporal oceanic distribution of ichthyoplankton around the Kerguelen Islands (Southern Ocean). Mar Ecol Prog Ser 72:225–238Google Scholar
  231. Koubbi P, Duhamel G, Hebert C (2001) Seasonal relative abundance of fish larvae inshore at Iles Kerguelen, Southern Ocean. Antarct Sci 13:385–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Kozlov AN (1978) Eco-physiological pecularities of some Antarctic fish species (in Russian). Trudy VNIRO 120:75–84Google Scholar
  233. Kozlov AN, Pinskaya JA, Podrajanskaya SG, Tarverdiyeva MI (1988) Feeding habitats of icefish in the different region of the Atlantic sector of Antarctica. Vopr Ikthiol 28:802–811. Transl as J Ichthyol 28:137–145Google Scholar
  234. Kunzmann A (1991) Blood physiology and ecological consequences in Weddell Sea fishes. Ber Polarforsch 91:1–79Google Scholar
  235. La Mesa M, Vacchi M (2001) Age and growth of high Antarctic notothenioid fish. Antarct Sci 13:227–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. La Mesa M, Vacchi M, Iwami T, Eastman JT (2002) Taxonomic studies of the Antarctic icefish genus Cryodraco Dollo, 1900 (Notothenioidei: Channichthyidae). Polar Biol 25:384–390Google Scholar
  237. La Mesa M, Caputo V, Rampar R, Vacchi M (2003) Macroscopic and histological analyses of gonads during the spawning season of Chionodrac hamatus (Pisces, Channichthyidae) off Terra Nova Bay, Ross Sea, Southern Ocean. Polar Biol 26(9):621–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. La Mesa M, Eastman JT, Vacchi M (2004a) The role of notothenioid fish in the food web of the Ross Sea shelf waters: a review. Polar Biol 27:321–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. La Mesa M, Ashford J, Larson E, Vacchi M (2004b) Age and growth of Scotia Sea icefish, Chaenocephalus aceratus, from the South Shetland Islands. Antarct Sci 16(3):253–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Lea M-A, Cherel Y, Guinet C, Nichols PD (2002) Antarctic fur seals foraging in the Polar Frontal Zone: inter-annual shifts in the diet as shown from fecal and fatty acid analyses. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 245:281–297Google Scholar
  241. Lescroël A, Ridoux V, Bost CA (2004) Spatial and temporal variation in the diet of gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) at Kerguelen Islands. Polar Biol 27:206–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Libertelli MM, Coria N, Maratheo G (2003) Diet of the Adelie penguin during three consecutive chick rearing periods at Laurie Island. Pol Polar Res 24(2):133–142Google Scholar
  243. Linkowski TB, Traczyk R (1988) Age and growth of Pseudochaenichthys georgianus Norman, 1937 (Channichthyidae) from the South Georgia area. WG-FSA-88/21, 2 pp CCAMLR, Hobart, Australia (mimeogr)Google Scholar
  244. Lishman GS (1985) The food and feeding ecology of Adélie penguins Pygoscelis adeliae and chinstrap penguins P. antarctica at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands. J Zool 205:245–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Lisovenko LA (1988) Some new information on the reproduction of Chaenocephalus aceratus (fam. Channichthyidae) of the region of the island of South Georgia. Vopr Ikthiol 28 (3):497–502. Transl as J Ichthyol 28 (2):130–135Google Scholar
  246. Lisovenko LA, Silyanova ZS (1980) The reproduction and fecundity of fish of the family Chaenichthyidae. In: An Ecological and Biological Description of Some Species of Antarctic Fishes. VNIRO, Moscow, 38–52Google Scholar
  247. Lisovenko LA, Trunov IA (1988) New information on the reproduction of ionah glassfish, Neopagetopsis ionah, of the Lazarev Sea. Vopr Ikthiol 28(6):946–952. Transl as J Ichthyol 29(3):27–33Google Scholar
  248. Litvinov F, Tormosov D, Frolkina Zh A (2004) The brief review of the AtlantNIRO investigations of living marine resources of whales, krill and fish in the Atlantic Ocean of the Antarctic. VII International Congress on the History of Oceanography, Museum of the World Ocean, Kaliningrad 8–12 September 2003, pp 273–278Google Scholar
  249. Loeb VJ, Kellermann AK, Koubbi P, North AW, White MG (1993) Antarctic larval fish assemblages: a review. Bull Mar Sci 53:416–449Google Scholar
  250. Lowry L, Testa JW, Calvert W (1988) Winter feeding of crabeater and leopard seals near the Antarctic Peninsula. Polar Biol 8:475–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. McCann TS, Doidge DW (1987) Antarctic fur seals Arctocephalus gazella. In: Croxall JP, Gentry RL (eds) Status and Ecology of Fur Seals. NOAA Tech Publ NMFS 51:5–8Google Scholar
  252. Meissner EE (1974) A new species of Chaenichthys from the Southern Ocean (in Russian). Vestn Zool 6:50–55Google Scholar
  253. Meloni S, Mazzini M, Fausto AM, Moacchioni R, Taddei AR, Buonocore F, Fiani M, Baldacci A, Scapgliati G (2004) Egg envelope organisation in the icefish Chionodraco hamatus. Polar Biol 27:586–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Montalti D, Casaux R, Coria N, Soave G (1996) The importance of fish in the diet of the South Polar skua Catharacta maccormicki at the South Shetland Islands. WG-EMM-96/32, 7 pp, CCAMLR, Hobart, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  255. Moore GJ, Robertson G, Wienecke B (1998) Food requirements of breeding king penguins at Heard Island and potential overlap with commercial fisheries. Polar Biol 20:293–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Morales-Nin B, Moranta J, Balguerias E (2000) Growth and age validation in high-Antarctic fish. Polar Biol 23:626–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Morla M, Alvar GN, Rahman I, Motterlini R, Saus C, Morales-Nin B, Company JB, Busquets X (2003) Nitric oxide synthase type I (nNOS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and myoglobin-like expression in skeletal muscle of Antarctic icefishes (Notothenioidei: Channichthyidae). Polar Biol 26:458–462Google Scholar
  258. Moylan TJ, Sidell BD (2000) Concentrations of myoglobin mRNA in heart ventricle from Antarctic fishes. J Exp Biol 203:1277–1286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Naumov AG, Permitin YuYe (1973) On trophic relationships between Euphausia superba Dana and fish of the Southern Ocean (as exemplified by the Scotia Sea) (in Russian). Trudy VNIRO 93:216–229Google Scholar
  260. Near TJ (2004) Estimating divergence times of notothenioid fishes using a fossil-calibrated molecular clock. Antarct Sci 16(1):37–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Near TJ, Pesavento JJ, Cheng CHC (2003) Mitochondrial DNA, morphology and the phylogenetic relationships of Antarctic icefish (Notothenioidei: Channichthyidae). Mol Phyl Evol 28:87–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Norman JR (1937) Coast fishes. Part II. The Patagonian region. Discovery Rep 16:1–150Google Scholar
  263. Norman JR (1938) Coast fishes. Part III. The Antarctic Zone. Discovery Rep 8:1–104Google Scholar
  264. North AW (1990) Ecological studies of Antarctic fish with emphasis on early development of inshore stages at South Georgia. Ph. D. thesis, Council for National Academic Awards, British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, 319 ppGoogle Scholar
  265. North AW (1996) Population differentiation by size for 0-age class Champsocephalus gunnari at Shag Rocks and South Georgia, CCAMLR Subarea 48.3. Antarct Sci 8:31–35Google Scholar
  266. North AW (2003) Mackerel icefish size and age at South Georgia and Shag Rocks. WG-EMM-03/07, 46 pp., CCAMLR Hobart Australia (mimeogr)Google Scholar
  267. North AW, Murray AWA (1992) Abundance and diurnal vertical distribution of fish larvae in early spring and summer in a fjord at South Georia. Antarct Sci 4:405–412Google Scholar
  268. North AW, Croxall JP, Doidge DW (1983) Fish prey of the Antarctic fur seal Arctocephalus gazella at South Georgia. Br Antarct Surv Bull 61:27–37Google Scholar
  269. Nybelin O (1947) Antarctic fishes. Scient Res Nor Antarct Exped 1927–28, 26:1–76Google Scholar
  270. O’Brien KM, Sidell BD (2000) The interplay among cardiac ultrastructure, metabolism and the expression of oxygen-binding proteins in Antarctic fishes. J Exp Biol 203:1287–1297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. O’Brien KM, Xue HJ, Sidell BD (2000) Quantification of diffusion distance within the spongy myocardium of hearts of Antarctic fishes. Resp Physiol 122 (1):71–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Oehlenschläger J (1991) Chemical composition of the flesh and other tissues of Antarctic fish species of the families Channichthyidae and Nototheniidae. Food Chem 40:159–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Olsen S (1955) A contribution to the systematics and biology of chaenichthyid fishes from South Georgia. Nytt Mag Zool Oslo 3:79–93Google Scholar
  274. Øritsland T (1977) Food consumption of seals in the Antarctic pack-ice. In: Llano GA (ed) Adaptations within Antarctic ecosystems. Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, pp 749–768Google Scholar
  275. Page B, Welling A, Chambellant M, Goldsworthy SD, Dorr T, van Veen R (2003) Population status and breeding season chronology of Heard Island fur seals. Polar Biol 26:219–224Google Scholar
  276. Pakhomov EA (1997) Feeding and exploitation of the food supply by demersal fishes in the Antarctic part of the Indian Ocean. Vopr Ikthiol 37:344–365. Transl as J Ichthyol 37:360–380Google Scholar
  277. Palm HW (1998) Ecology of Pseudoterranova decipiens (Krabbe, 1878) (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from Antarctic waters. Parasit Res 85(8–9):638–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Palm H, Andersen K, Klöser H, Plötz J (1994) Occurrence of Pseudoterranova decipiens (Nematoda) in fish from the southeastern Weddell Sea (Antarctic). Polar Biol 14(8):539–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Parkes G (1993) The fishery for Antarctic icefish Champsocephalus gunnari around South Georgia. Ph D Thesis, Renewable Resources Assessment Group, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, 465 ppGoogle Scholar
  280. Patarnello T, Marcato S, Zane L, Varotto V, Bargelloni L (2003) Phylogeny of the Chionodraco genus (Perciformes, Channichthyidae) in the Southern Ocean. Mol Phyl Evol 28:420–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Permitin YuYe (1970) The consumption of krill by Antarctic fishes. In: Holdgate MW (ed) Antarctic ecology. Academic Press London 1:177–182Google Scholar
  282. Permitin YuYe (1973) Fecundity and reproductive biology of icefish (fam. Chaenichthyidae), fish of the family Muraenolepidae and dragonfish (Bathydraconidae) of the Scotia Sea (Antarctic). Vopr Ikthiol. 13 (2):245–258. Transl as J Ichthyol 13:204–215Google Scholar
  283. Permitin YuYe, Tarverdiyeva MI (1972) The food of some Antarctic fish in the South Georgia area. Vopr Ikthiol 12:120–132. Transl as J Ichthyol 12:104–114Google Scholar
  284. Permitin YuYe, Tarverdiyeva MI (1978) Feeding of Antarctic cods (Nototheniidae) and icefishes (Chaenichthyidae) near the South Orkney Islands (in Russian). Biol Mor 2:75–81Google Scholar
  285. Plötz J (1986) Summer diet of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) in the Eastern and Southern Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Polar Biol 6:97–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. Plötz J, Ekau W, Reijnders PJR (1991) Diet of Weddell seals Leptonychotes weddellii at Vestkapp, eastern Weddell Sea (Antarctica), in relation to local food supply. Mar Mammal Sci 7(2):136–144Google Scholar
  287. Prutko VG (2004) Observer notes (Subarea 88.1). WG-FSA-04/89, 11 pp., CCAMLR, Hobart, Australia (mimeogr)Google Scholar
  288. Pshenichnov LV (2004) Some peculiarities of Chionobathyscus dewitti biology in the Ross Sea. WG-FSA-04/90, 6 pp., CCAMLR, Hobart, Australia (mimeogr)Google Scholar
  289. Quidor A (1906) Sur les copepods recuellis par la mission Charcot et communiqué par M. E. Bouvier. C R Acad Sci Paris 142:54–56Google Scholar
  290. Radtke RL (1987) Information incorporated in Antarctic fish otoliths. In: Kullander SO, Fernholm B (eds) Proc V Congr Europ Ichthyol, Stockholm, pp 421–425Google Scholar
  291. Radtke RL (1990) Age determination of the Antarctic fishes Champsocephalus gunnari and Notothenia rossii marmorata from South Georgia. Polar Biol 10:321–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. Radtke RL, Kellermann A (1991) Microstructural analysis of growth patterns in the early life history of Antarctic fisheries. In: di Prisco G, Maresca B, Tota B (eds) Biology of Antarctic fish. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 101–115Google Scholar
  293. Rankin C, Tuurala H (1998) Gills of Antarctic fish. Comp Biochem Physiol A 119(1):149–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Rankin JC, Harrison P, Airey AC (1987) Branchial vascular anatomy in the icefish Chaenocephalus aceratus Lönnberg. In: Kullander SO, Fernholm B (eds) Proc V Congr Europ Ichthyol, Stockholm 1985, pp 453Google Scholar
  295. Regan CT (1914) Diagnosis of new marine fishes collected by the British Antarctic (,Terra Nova’) Expedition 1910. Ann Mag Nat Hist 13:11–17Google Scholar
  296. Reid K (1995) The diet of Antarctic fur seals Arctocephalus gazella during winter at South Georgia. Antarct Sci 7:241–249Google Scholar
  297. Reid K, Arnould JPY (1996) The diet of Antarctic fur seals Arctocephalus gazella during the breeding season at South Georgia. Polar Biol 16:105–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Reid K, Croxall JP (2001) Environmental responses of upper trophic-level predators reveals a system change in an Antarctic marine ecosystem. Proc Roy Soc, Lond B (200) 268:377–384Google Scholar
  299. Reid K, Croxall JP, Prince PA (1996) The fish diet of black-browed albatross Diomedea melanophris and grey-headed albatross D. chrysostoma at South Georgia. Polar Biol 16:469–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. Reid K, Hill S, Diniz T (2003) Mackerel icefish Champsocephalus gunnari in the diet of upper trophic level predators at South Georgia: implications for fisheries management. WG-FSA-03/74, 33 pp., CCAMLR, Hobart, Australia (mimeogr)Google Scholar
  301. Rembiszewski JM, Krzeptowski M, Linkowski TB (1978) Fishes (Pisces) as a by-catch in fisheries of krill Euphausia superba Dana (Euphausiacea, Crustacea). Pol Arch Hydrobiol 25:677–695Google Scholar
  302. Richardson J (1844) Description of a new genus of gobioid fish. Ann Mag NatHist 13:461–462Google Scholar
  303. Ridoux V (1994) The diet and dietary segregation of seabirds at the Subantarctic Crozet Islands. Mar Ornith 22(1):1–192Google Scholar
  304. Riehl R, Kock KH (1989) The surface structure of Antarctic fish eggs and its use in identifying fish eggs from the Southern Ocean. Polar Biol 9:197–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. Ritchie PA, Bargelloni L, Meyer A, Taylor J, Macdonald JA, Lambert DM (1996) Tempo of speciation in Antarctica: a mitochondrial phylogeny of Trematomus fishes (Nototheniidae, Perciformes). Mol Phyl Evol 5:383–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. Ritchie PA, Lavone S, Lecointre G (1997) Molecular phylogenetics and the evolution of Antarctic notothenioid fish. Comp Biochem Physiol 118A:1009–1025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. Robertson G, Williams R, Green K, Robertson L (1994) Diet composition of emperor penguin chicks Aptenodytes forsteri at two Mawson coast colonies, Antarctica. Ibis 136:19–31Google Scholar
  308. Robilliard GA, Dayton PK (1969) Notes of the biology of the chaenichthyid Pagetopsis macropterus from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Antarct J US 4:304–306Google Scholar
  309. Robineau DC, Duhamel G (1984) Regime alimentaire du dauphin de commerson (Cephalorhynchus commersonii, Lacepéde, 1804) aux Iles Kerguelen, pendant l’été austral. Bull Mus Natl Hist Nat (4e sér) 6(2):551–559Google Scholar
  310. Rocka A (2004) Nematodes of Antarctic fishes. Pol Polar Res 25(2):135–152Google Scholar
  311. Roschin EA (2000) Spawning of Antarctic icefish Champsocephalus gunnari (Channichthyidae) off Kerguelen–Heard Ridge. Vopr Ikthiol 40 (2):286–287. Transl as J Ichthyol 40 (2):210–211Google Scholar
  312. Rowedder U (1984) Nahrungsökologie antarktischer Fische. Unpubl Ph D Thesis, Univ of Kiel, 101 ppGoogle Scholar
  313. Ruud JT (1954) Vertebrates without erythrocytes and blood pigment. Nature 173(4410):848–850PubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. SC-CAMLR (2003) Report of the Working Group on Fish Stock Assessment, Hobart, Australia, 7–17 October 2003. In: Report of the 22nd Meeting of the Scientific Committee, Annex 5, CCAMLR, Hobart, Australia, pp 311–490Google Scholar
  315. Schwarzbach W (1988) Die Fischfauna des östlichen und südlichen Weddellmeeres: geographische Verbreitung, Nahrung und trophische Stellung der Fischarten. Ber Polarforsch 54:1–94Google Scholar
  316. Shandikov GA (1995a) A new species of icefish, Channichthys panticapei sp. n. (Channichthyidae, Notothenioidei) from the Kerguelen Island (Antarctica) (in Russian). Proc South Sci Res Inst Mar Fish and Oceanogr (YugNIRO), Spec. Iss. 1:1–10Google Scholar
  317. Shandikov GA (1995b) To the question about the composition of icefish species of the genus Channichthys in the Kerguelen Islands area with description of three new species (in Russian). Proc South Sci Res Inst Mar Fish and Oceanogr (YugNIRO), Spec. Iss. 2:1–18Google Scholar
  318. Shandikov GA, Faaleva TJ (1992) Features of gametogenesis and sexual cycles of six notothenioid fishes from East Antarctica. Polar Biol 11:615–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. Shust KV, Kochkin PN (1985) Growth, growth rate and length composition of neritic and pelagic mass fishes of the Southern Ocean (in Russian). VNIRO, Moscow 42:31Google Scholar
  320. Shust KV, Kusnetsova EN (2003) Growth of mackerel icefish (Champsocephalus gunnari) and age size composition of populations in subarea of South Georgia. WG-EMM-03/60, pp 16 CCAMLR, Hobart, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  321. Sidell B (1998) Intracellular oxygen diffusion: the roles of myoglobin and lipid at cold temperature. J Exp Biol 201:1118–1127Google Scholar
  322. Sidell BD, Vajda ME, Small DJ, Moylan DJ, Londraville RL, Yuan ML, Rodnick KJ, Eppley ZA, Costello L (1997) Variable expression of myoglobin among the hemoglobinless Antarctic icefishes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:3420–3424CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. Siegel V (1980) Quantitative investigations on parasites of Antarctic channichthyid and notothenioid fishes. Meeresforsch 28:146–156Google Scholar
  324. Silva MP, Faveri M, Copello S, Bastida R (2001) Does access to high-quality pelagic prey increase the breeding success of Kelp gulls Larus dominicanus in the Antarctic Peninsula? Mar Ornith 29:85–88Google Scholar
  325. Skora KE (1988) Fishes in pelagic catches in the South Shetland area (BIOMASS III, October–November 1986 and January 1987. Pol Polar Res 9:367–383Google Scholar
  326. Skora KE (1991) Ichthyoplankton near ice edge between King Gorge Island and the South Orkney Islands. Pol Polar Res 12:605–611Google Scholar
  327. Slosarczyk W (1983) Preliminary estimation of abundance of juvenile Nototheniidae and Channichthyidae within krill swarms east of South Georgia. Acta Ichthyol Piscat 8:3–11Google Scholar
  328. Slosarczyk W (1986) Attempts at a quantitative estimate by trawl sampling of distribution of postlarval and juvenile notothenioids (Pisces, Perciformes) in relation to environmental conditions in the Antarctic Peninsula region during SIBEX 1983–84. Mem Natl Inst Polar Res, Spec Iss 40:299–315Google Scholar
  329. Slosarczyk W (1987) Contribution to the early life history of Channichthyidae from the Bransfield Strait and South Georgia (Antarctica). In: Kullander SO, Fernholm B (eds) Proc V Congr Europ Ichthyol, Stockholm 1985, pp 427–433Google Scholar
  330. Slosarczyk W, Cielniaszek Z (1985) Postlarval and juvenile fish (Pisces, Perciformes and Myctophiformes) in the Antarctic Peninsula region during BIOMASS SIBEX 1983/1984. Pol Polar Res 6:159–165Google Scholar
  331. Slosarczyk W, Rembiszewski JM (1982) The occurrence of juvenile Notothenioidei (Pisces) within krill concentrations in the region of the Bransfield Strait and the southern Drake Passage. Pol Polar Res 3:299–312Google Scholar
  332. Slosarczyk W, Wysokinski A (1980). Ichthyological and fishery studies of the shelf fishing grounds in the region of the Kerguelen Islands (Antarctic). Pol Polar Res 1:173–190Google Scholar
  333. Small DJ, Moylan T, Vayda ME, Sidell BD (2002) The myoglobin gene of the Antarctic icefish Chaenocephalus aceratus contains a duplicate TATAAAA sequence that interferes with transcription. J Exp Biol 206:131–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. Smith RC, Stammerjohn SE, Baker KS (1996) Surface air temperature variations in the western Antarctic Peninsula region. In: Ross RM, Hofmann E, Quetin LB (eds) Foundation for Antarctic Research west of the Antarctic Peninsula. Antarct Res Ser 70:105–121Google Scholar
  335. Soave GE, Coria N, Silva P, Montalti D, Favero M (1996) The diet of cape pigeon Daption capense during the chick-rearing period at Fildes Peninsula and Harmony Point, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. WG-EMM-96/17, CCAMLR, Hobart, Australia, 14 pp (mimeogr)Google Scholar
  336. Sosinski J (1982) Zosoby Antarktyki. Rep. Morsk Inst. Ryback 1980/81, pp 77–80 (in Polish)Google Scholar
  337. Sosinski J (1985) Some data on the taxonomy and biology of Antarctic icefish Champsocephalus gunnari Lönnberg 1905. Acta Ichthyol Piscat 15:3–54Google Scholar
  338. Sosinski J, Janusz J (2000) Infection variability of the parasitic copepod Eubrachiella antarctica (Quidor, 1906) on fishes in the Atlantic sector of the Antarctic. Bull Sea Fish Inst 2:25–42Google Scholar
  339. Sosinski J, Paciorkowski A (1993) State of mackerel icefish (Champsocephalus gunnari Lönnberg, 1905) stock from South Georgia area based on Polish biological investigations in 1975–1992. Pol Polar Res 14:407–431Google Scholar
  340. Stankovic A, Spalik K, Kamler E, Borsuk P, Weglenski P (2002) Recent origin of sub-Antarctic notothenioids. Polar Biol 25:203–205Google Scholar
  341. Stewart JE, Douglas EL (1973) Circulatory anatomy in the icefish, family Chaenichthyidae. Antarct J US 8:204–205Google Scholar
  342. Takahasi M, Iwami T (1997) Summer diet of demersal fish at the South Shetland Islands. Antarct Sci 9:407–413Google Scholar
  343. Takahasi M, Nemoto T (1984) The food of some fish in the Western Ross Sea in summer 1979. Polar Biol 3:237–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  344. Tankevich PB (1993) On feeding of Notothenia rossii on the Kerguelen Island shelf. In: Duhamel G (ed) Les rapports des campagnes à la mer. Campagnes SKALP 1987 et 1988 aux Iles Kerguelen à bord des navires ‘Skif’ et ‘Kalper’, l’Institut Français pour la Recherche et la Tecnologie Polaires, 93–01:277–284Google Scholar
  345. Tarverdiyeva MI (1982) The food composition, daily ration and feeding habits of the icefish Champsocepalus gunnari Lönnberg off the South Orkneys. In: Characteristics of the pelagic communitiy from the Sea of Scotia and adjacent waters. Trudy VNIRO, 69–76Google Scholar
  346. Tarverdiyeva MI, Pinskaya IA (1980) The feeding of fishes of the families Nototheniidae and Chaenichthyidae on the shelves of the Antarctic Peninsula and the South Shetlands. Vopr Ikthiol 20:644–655. Transl as J Ichthyol 20:50–60Google Scholar
  347. Tarverdiyeva MI, Podrazhanskaja SG, Pinskaya IA (1996a) Feeding and trophic relationships of fish around South Georgia (Antarctica) based on multi-year observations. In: Neiman AA, Tarverdiyeva MI (eds) Hydrobiolgical investigations in fishery regions of seas and oceans, pp 138–152Google Scholar
  348. Tarverdiyeva MI, Kozlov AN, Pinskaya IA, Podrazhanskaya SG (1996b) Feeding and trophic relationships of several fish species in the vicinity of Shag Rocks. In: Neiman AA, Tarverdiyeva MI (eds) Hydrobiolgical investigations in fishery regions of seas and oceans, pp 152–160Google Scholar
  349. Tomo AP, Barrera-Oro ER (1986) Edad y crecimento en largo de Champsocephalus gunnari Lönnberg 1905 (Pisces, Chaenichthyidae) en el area de la Isla Elefante, zona oeste, Antartica. Cont Inst Antart Arg 319Google Scholar
  350. Tota B, Acierno R, Agnisola C (1991a) Mechanical performance of the isolated and perfused heart of the haemoglobinless Antarctic icefish Chionodraco hamatus (Lönnberg): effects of loading conditions and temperature. Phil Trans Roy Soc Lond Series B 332(1264):191–198Google Scholar
  351. Tota B, Agnisola C, Schioppa M, Acierno R, Harrison P, Zummo G (1991b) Structural and mechanical characteristics of the heart of the icefish Chionodraco hamatus (Lönnberg). In: di Prisco G, Maresca B, Tota B (eds) Biology of Antarctic fish. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 204–219Google Scholar
  352. Tota B, Cerra MC, Mazza R, Oellegrino D, Icardo J (1997) The heart of Antarctic icefish as a paradigm of cold adaptation. J Therm Biol 22(6):409–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. Townsend DW (1980) Microstructural growth increments in some Antarctic fish otoliths. Cybium 3e serie 1980(8):17–22Google Scholar
  354. Trunov IA, Frolkina ZhA, Konstantinova MP (2000) Vertical distribution of the Antarctic icefish Champsocephalus gunnari and Nototheniops larseni on the shelf of South Georgia (Antarctic). Vopr Ikthiol 40:187–192. Transl as J Ichthyol 40:150–154Google Scholar
  355. Twelves EL (1972) Blood volume of two Antarctic fishes. Br Antarct Surv Bull 31:85–92Google Scholar
  356. Vacchi M, Romanelli M, la Mesa M (1992) Age structure of Chionodraco hamatus (Teleostei, Channichthyidae) samples caught in Terra Nova Bay, East Antarctica. Polar Biol 12:735–738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  357. Vacchi M, Williams R, la Mesa M (1996) Reproduction in three species of fish from the Ross Sea and Mawson Sea. Antarct Sci 8:185–192Google Scholar
  358. Vogel W, Kock KH (1981) Morphology of gill vessels in icefish. Arch FischWiss 31:139–150Google Scholar
  359. Volkman NJ, Presler P, Trivelpiece WZ (1980) Diet of pygoscelid penguins at King George Island, Antarctica. Condor 82:373–378Google Scholar
  360. Voskoboinikova OS (1994) On individual bony skeleton development rates in eleven species of the family Nototheniidae. Vopr Ikthiol 34 (4):501–508. Transl as J Ichthyol 34 (8):108–119Google Scholar
  361. Voskoboinikova OS (1997) Osteological development of the Channichthyidae (Teleostei: Notothenioidei). Cybium 21:369–379Google Scholar
  362. Voskoboinikova OS (2000) Comparative osteology of Dacodraco hunteri and its position within the family Channichthyidae (Notothenioidei). Zool Zh 79:321–332Google Scholar
  363. Voskoboinikova OS (2001) Evolutionary significance of heterochronies in the development of the bony skeleton in fishes of the suborder Notothenioidei (Perciformes). Vopr Ikthiol 41 (4):455–464. Transl as J Ichthyol 41:415 –424Google Scholar
  364. Waite ER (1916) Fishes Scient Rep Australas Antarct Exped 3:1–92Google Scholar
  365. Walesby NJ, Nicol CJ, Johnston IA (1982) Metabolic differentiation of muscle fibres from a haemoglobinless (Champsocephalus gunnari Lönnberg) and a red-blooded (Notothenia rossii Fischer) Antarctic fish. Br Antarct Surv Bull 51:201–214Google Scholar
  366. Walvig F (1960) The integument of the icefish Chaenocephalus aceratus (Lönnberg). Nytt Mag Zool Oslo 6:111–120Google Scholar
  367. Wells RMG, Ashby MD, Duncan SJ, Macdonald JA (1980) Comparative study of the erythrocytes and haemoglobins in notothenioid fishes from Antarctica. J Fish Biol 17:517–527Google Scholar
  368. Wells RMG, Macdonald JA, di Prisco G (1990) Thin-blooded Antarctic fishes: a rheological comparison of the haemoglobin-free icefishes Chionodraco kathleenae and Cryodraco antarcticus with a red-blooded nototheniid Pagothenia bernacchii. J Fish Biol 36:595–609Google Scholar
  369. White MG (1991) Age determination of Antarctic fish. In: di Prisco G, Maresca B, Tota B (eds) Biology of Antarctic Fish. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 87–100Google Scholar
  370. Whiteley NM, Egginton S (1999) Antarctic fishes have a limited capacity for catecholamine synthesis. J Exp Biol 202(24):3623–3629PubMedGoogle Scholar
  371. Williams R (1983) The inshore fishes of Heard and McDonald Islands, Southern Indian Ocean. J Fish Biol 23:283–292Google Scholar
  372. Williams R (1985) The potential impact of a krill fishery upon pelagic fish in Prydz Bay area of Antarctica. Polar Biol 5:1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  373. Williams R (2003) Summary and update of tagging of Patagonian toothfish at Heard and Macquarie Islands. WG-FSA-03/70, 2 pp, CCAMLR, Hobart, Australia (mimeogr)Google Scholar
  374. Williams R, de la Mare WK (1995) Fish distribution and biomass in the Heard Island zone (Division 58.5.2). CCAMLR Sci 2:1–20Google Scholar
  375. Williams R, McEldowney A (1990) A guide to the fish otoliths from waters off the Australian Antarctic Territory, Heard and McDonald Islands. ANARE Res Not 75:1–173Google Scholar
  376. Williams R, Smolenski AJ, White RMG (1994) Mitochondrial DNA variation of Champsocephalus gunnari Lönnberg (Pisces: Channichthyidae) stocks on the Kerguelen Plateau, southern Indian Ocean. Antarct Sci 6:347–352Google Scholar
  377. Williams R, van Wijk E, Constable A, Lamb T (2001) The fishery for Champsocephalus gunnari and its biology at Heard Island (Division 58.5.2). WAMI-01/4, 23 pp, CCAMLR, Hobart, Australia (mimeogr)Google Scholar
  378. Williams R, Tuck GN, Constable AJ, Lamb W (2002) Movements, growth and available abundance to the fishery of Dissostichus eleginoides Smitt 1898 at Heard Island derived from tagging experiments. CCAMLR Sci 9:33–48Google Scholar
  379. Woehler EJ, Green K (1992) Consumption of marine resources by seabirds and seals at Heard Island and the McDonald Islands. Polar Biol 12:659–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  380. Xavier JC, Croxall JP, Reid K (2003) Interannual variation in the diets of two albatross species breeding at South Georgia:implications for breeding performance. Ibis 145(4):593–610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  381. Zdzitowiecki K (1979) Digenean trematodes in alimentary tracts of fishes of South Georgia and South Shetlands (Antarctica). Acta Ichthyol Piscat 9:15–31Google Scholar
  382. Zdzitowiecki K (1986) Acanthocephala of the Antarctic. Pol Polar Res 7:79–117Google Scholar
  383. Zdzitowiecki K (1987) Digenetic trematodes from the alimentary tract of fishes off the South Shetlands (Antarctica). Acta Parasitol Pol 32(3):219–232Google Scholar
  384. Zdzitowiecki K (1990) Occurrence of acanthocephalans in the open sea fishes off the South Shetlands and South Georgia (Antarctic). Acta Parasitol Pol 35:131–142Google Scholar
  385. Zdzitowiecki K (2002) Occurrence of digenea in fishes of the family Channichthyidae in the Weddell Sea and other sub-continental areas of the Antarctic. Acta Parasit 47(2):159–162Google Scholar
  386. Zdzitowiecki K, White MG (1992a) Digenean trematoda infection of inshore fish at South Georgia. Antarct Sci 4(1):51–55Google Scholar
  387. Zdzitowiecki K, White MG (1992b) Acanthocephalan infection of inshore fish in two fjords at South Georgia. Antarct Sci 4(2):197–203Google Scholar
  388. Zummo G, Acierno R, Aginisola C, Tota B (1995) The heart of the ice fish—bioconstruction and adaptation. Braz J Med Biol Res 28(11–12):1265–1276PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für SeefischereiBundesforschungsanstalt für FischereiHamburgGermany

Personalised recommendations