Polar Biology

, Volume 26, Issue 7, pp 474–485

Size-related dietary changes observed in the squid Moroteuthis ingens at the Falkland Islands: stomach contents and fatty-acid analyses

  • Katrina L. Phillips
  • Peter D. Nichols
  • George D. Jackson
Original Paper
  • 148 Downloads

Abstract

Dietary composition of the onychoteuthid squid Moroteuthis ingens at the Falkland Islands was related to predator size, as shown by stomach contents and fatty-acid analyses. Comparisons were made between two size classes of squid: those of mantle length <200 mm and those of mantle length >200 mm. Smaller squid had frequently consumed crustaceans and cephalopods; fish were of secondary importance. Larger squid consumed mostly fish and moderate amounts of cephalopods, but had rarely consumed crustaceans. These findings were supported by comparisons drawn between digestive-gland fatty-acid profiles and the fatty-acid profiles of potential prey species. Fatty-acid analyses indicated that the crustaceans Euphausia lucens, Munida gregaria and Themisto gaudichaudii were important prey items of smaller squid, whereas stomach content and fatty-acid analyses indicated that Gymnoscopelus nicholsi of around 100 mm standard length represented much of the fish prey of larger squid.

References

  1. Ackman RG (1980) Fish lipids. Part 1. In: Connell JJ (ed) Advances in fish science and technology. Fishing News Books, pp 86–103Google Scholar
  2. Arkhipkin AI, Brickle P, Laptikhovsky V, Butcher L, Jones E, Potter M, Poulding D (2001) Variation in the diet of the red cod with size and season around the Falkland Islands (south-west Atlantic). J Mar Biol Assoc UK 81:1035–1040Google Scholar
  3. Breiby A, Jobling M (1985) Predatory role of the flying squid (Todarodes sagittatus) in north Norwegian waters. NAFO Sci Counc Stud 9:125–132Google Scholar
  4. Clarke MR (1986) A handbook for the identification of cephalopod beaks. Clarendon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  5. Coelho M, Domingues P, Balguerias E, Fernandez M, Andrade JP (1997) A comparative study of the diet of Loligo vulgaris (Lamarck, 1799) (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) from the south coast of Portugal and the Saharan Bank (Central-East Atlantic). Fish Res 29:245–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Collins MA, Pierce GJ (1996) Size selectivity in the diet of Loligo forbesi (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae). J Mar Biol Assoc UK 76:1081–1090Google Scholar
  7. Filippova JA (1972) New data on the squids (Cephalopoda: Oegopsida) from the Scotia Sea (Antarctic). Malacologia 11:391–406Google Scholar
  8. Guerra A, Castro BG, Nixon M (1991) Preliminary study on the feeding by Loligo gahi (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae). Bull Mar Sci 49:309–311Google Scholar
  9. Ivanovic M, Brunetti NE (1994) Food and feeding of Illex argentinus. Antarct Sci 6:185–193Google Scholar
  10. Iverson SJ (1993) Milk secretion in marine mammals in relation to foraging: can milk fatty acids predict diet? Symp Zool Soc Lond 66:263–291Google Scholar
  11. Jackson GD, George MJA, Buxton NG (1998a) Distribution and abundance of the squid Moroteuthis ingens (Cephalopoda: Onychoteuthidae) in the Falkland Islands region of the South Atlantic. Polar Biol 20:161–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jackson GD, McKinnon JF, Lalas C, Ardern R, Buxton N (1998b) Food spectrum of the deepwater squid Moroteuthis ingens (Cephalopoda: Onychoteuthidae) in New Zealand waters. Polar Biol 20:56–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kock K (1987) Marine consumers: fish and squid. Environ Int 13:37–45Google Scholar
  14. Lipinski MR (1979) Universal maturity scale for the commercially important squids. The results of maturity classification of the Illex illecebrosus (Le Sueur, 1821) population for the years 1973–1977. Res doc ICNAF, 79/II/38 (serial no. 5364)Google Scholar
  15. Lipinski MR (1987) Food and feeding of Loligo vulgaris reynaudii from St Francis Bay, South Africa. S Afr J Mar Sci 5:557–564Google Scholar
  16. Lubimova T (1985) Results of Soviet investigations of the distribution and ecology of pelagic squids (Oegopsida) in the Southern Ocean. SC-CAMLR-IV/BG/18:79–111. CCAMLR, HobartGoogle Scholar
  17. Mangold K (1983) Food, feeding and growth in cephalopods. Mem Natl Mus Victoria Melbourne 44:81–93Google Scholar
  18. Mouat B, Collins MA, Pompert J (2001) Patterns in the diet of Illex argentinus (Cephalopoda: Omastrephidae) from the Falkland Islands jigging fishery. Fish Res 52:41–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Navarro JC, Villanueva R (2000) Lipid and fatty acid composition of early stages of cephalopods: an approach to their lipid requirements. Aquaculture 183:161–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Nixon M (1987) Cephalopod diets. In: Boyle PR (ed) Cephalopod life cycles, vol 2. Academic, London, pp 201–219Google Scholar
  21. Phillips KL, Jackson GD, Nichols PD (2001) Predation on myctophids by the squid Moroteuthis ingens around Macquarie and Heard Islands: stomach contents and fatty acid analyses. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 215:179–189Google Scholar
  22. Phillips KL, Nichols PD, Jackson GD (2002) Lipid and fatty acid composition of the mantle and digestive gland of four Southern Ocean squid species: implications for food-web studies. Antarct Sci 14:212–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Phillips KL, Nichols PD, Jackson GD (2003) Dietary variation of the squid Moroteuthis ingens at four sites in the Southern Ocean: stomach contents and fatty acid analyses. J Mar Biol Assoc UK (in press)Google Scholar
  24. Pierce GJ, Boyle PR, Hastie LC, Santos MB (1994) Diet of squid Loligo forbesi and Loligo vulgaris in the northeast Atlantic. Fish Res 21:149–163Google Scholar
  25. Quetglas A, Alemany F, Carbonell A, Merella P, Sanchez P (1999) Diet of the European flying squid Todarodes sagittus (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) in the Balearic Sea (western Mediterranean). J Mar Biol Assoc UK 79:479–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rodhouse PG, Nigmatullin CM (1996) Role as consumers. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B 351:1003–1022Google Scholar
  27. Rodhouse PG, White MG (1995) Cephalopods occupy the ecological niche of epipelagic fish in the Antarctic Polar Frontal Zone. Biol Bull 189:77–80Google Scholar
  28. Saether O, Ellingsen TE, Mohr V (1986) Lipolysis post mortem in north Atlantic krill. Comp Biochem Physiol 83B:51–55Google Scholar
  29. Saito H, Murata M (1998) Origin of the monoene fats in the lipid of midwater fishes: relationship between the lipids of myctophids and those of their prey. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 168:21–33Google Scholar
  30. Sargent JR (1976) The structure, metabolism and function of lipids in marine organisms. In: Malins DC, Sargent JR (eds) Biochemical and physiological perspectives in marine biology, vol 3. Academic, London, pp 149–212Google Scholar
  31. Smale MJ, Watson G, Hecht T (1995) Otolith atlas of Southern African marine fishes. J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, GrahamstownGoogle Scholar
  32. Williams R, McEldowney A (1990) A guide to the fish otoliths from waters off the Australian Antarctic Territory, Heard and Macquarie Islands. ANARE Research Notes 75. Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions, HobartGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katrina L. Phillips
    • 1
  • Peter D. Nichols
    • 2
    • 3
  • George D. Jackson
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Antarctic and Southern Ocean StudiesUniversity of TasmaniaHobartAustralia
  2. 2.CSIRO Marine ResearchHobartAustralia
  3. 3.Antarctic CRCUniversity of TasmaniaHobartAustralia

Personalised recommendations