Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of a phalaenopsis orchid
Genetically transformed plants of a phalaenopsis orchid [Doritaenopsis Coral Fantasy×Phalaenopsis (Baby Hat×Ann Jessica)] were regenerated after cocultivation of cell clumps with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains LBA4404 (pTOK233) and EHA101 (pIG121Hm) that harbored genes for β-glucuronidase (GUS) and hygromycin resistance. The efficiency of transformation was markedly increased by 10 h cocultivation of cell clumps with A. tumefaciens that had been induced with 200 μm acetosyringone, and by inclusion of 500 μm acetosyringone in the cocultivation medium. Hygromycin-resistant cell clusters (0.5–3 mm in diameter) were selected from the infected cell clumps after 4–6 weeks of culture on agar (8 g/l)-solidified new Dogashima medium (NDM) containing 20 g/l sucrose, 0.1 mg/l naphthaleneacetic acid, 1.0 mg/l benzyladenine (BA), 50 mg/l hygromycin and 300 mg/l cefotaxime. The cell clusters proliferated 4 weeks after transfer onto the same medium. To induce callus greening, the carbon source was changed from sucrose to maltose. The green calli obtained produced protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) after 4 weeks of culture on phytohormone-free NDM medium. Regeneration of transgenic plantlets was enhanced by incubating PLBs on NDM medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/l abscisic acid, followed by partial desiccation for 10–30 min. Successful transformation was confirmed by histochemical GUS assay, PCR analysis and Southern hybridization of transformants. With this transformation system, more than 100 hygromycin-resistant phalaenopsis plantlets were produced about 7 months following infection of the cell aggregates.
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