In vitro multiplication of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) using shoot node explants of glasshouse-raised plants
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Using glasshouse-raised plants (1 month, 1 year and 5 years old), factors affecting shoot development from shoot nodes of two Brazilian and one Tanzanian elite selections of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) were assessed. Sprouting of buds decreased strongly with increasing age of mother plants. Solidified media, mainly when purified agar was used, gave better results than liquid medium. Murashige and Skoog salts containing 1/2-strength macroelements were the most suitable for bud sprouting and shoot elongation. Vitamins and sucrose concentration did not have a significant effect but by replacing 20 g/l sucrose with glucose or maltose all estimated parameters were improved. Gibberellins supported bud sprouting and shoot elongation but blocked rooting. Shoots developed in the presence of cytokinins were short and produced axillary branches. Activated charcoal, cultivation of explants in darkness for the first 7 days and superoptimal temperature (35 °C) decreased bud sprouting and supported shoot elongation. Microshoots rooted in vitro at a frequency of 42% when cultured for 5 days with 100 μμ indole-3-butyric acid. Over 40% of rooted microshoots survived weaning.
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