Induced androgenesis in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). II. Factors affecting induction of androgenesis
The influence on androgenesis of donor plant growth conditions, anther size and developmental stage of the microspore, medium composition and different anther treatments prior to culture was investigated in L. esculentum Mill. cv Roma and its hybrids. Growth conditions of donor plants affected the induction of tomato androgenesis. Anthers isolated from plants grown in the greenhouse during winter at high humidity and in short days possessed higher androgenetic ability than those grown in the field. The physiological state and age of the donor plants also influenced the processes investigated. Regarding the developmental stage of microspores, the period from prophase to telophase II is optimal for tomato anther implantation. More then 20 culture media were tested. Two, based on Murashige and Skoog medium were selected as most favourable for callus induction, organogenesis and regeneration. The effect on callus induction of 2ip in combination with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was greater than that of zeatin and IAA. Zeatin promoted entire plant regeneration. A highly significant interaction between genotype and medium was observed. Temperature and gamma ray treatments of anthers enhanced callus production, shoot formation and plant regeneration. Treatments at 4 °C (48 h) and 10 °C (9 days) stimulated these processes. Combined treatment of anthers with 4 Gy and 10 °C for 9 days was the most efficient.
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