Plastid transformation is reported in Arabidopsis thaliana following biolistic delivery of transforming DNA into leaf cells. Transforming plasmid pGS31A carries a spectinomycin resistance (aadA) gene flanked by plastid DNA sequences to target its insertion between trnV and the rps12/7 operon. Integration of aadA by two homologous recombination events via the flanking ptDNA sequences and selective amplification of the transplastomes on spectinomycin medium yielded resistant cell lines and regenerated plants in which the plastid genome copies have been uniformly altered. The efficiency of plastid transformation was low: 2 in 201 bombarded leaf samples. None of the 98 plants regenerated from the two lines were fertile.
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