Developmental and structural aspects of somatic embryos formed on medium containing 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid
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Cotyledon explants of ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) zygotic embryos produced somatic embryos at a high rate (68%) on medium without any growth regulators. Under this culture condition, apparent polar somatic embryogenesis occurred near the basal-excised portion of the cotyledons. When the cotyledon explants were cultured on medium containing 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), an auxin polar-transport inhibitor, the frequency of somatic embryo formation markedly decreased and was completely inhibited on medium containing 20 µM TIBA. On medium containing 5–10 µM, somatic embryos developed sporadically on the surface of the cotyledons and had a normal embryo axis but jar-shaped cotyledons. Embryos with jar-shaped cotyledons were also observed to occur at a high frequency when the early globular embryos formed on hormone-free medium were transferred to medium containing 20 µM TIBA. From these results, it was deduced that endogenous auxin in the cotyledon explants plays an important role in the induction of somatic embryos and that the cotyledon development in somatic embryos is also related to the polar transport of endogenous auxin.
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