LcGST4 is an anthocyanin-related glutathione S-transferase gene in Litchi chinensis Sonn.
- 1k Downloads
A novel LcGST4 was identified and characterized from Litchi chinensis . Expression and functional analysis demonstrated that it might function in anthocyanin accumulation in litchi.
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) have been defined as detoxification enzymes for their ability to recognize reactive electrophilic xenobiotic molecules as well as endogenous secondary metabolites. Anthocyanins are among the few endogenous substrates of GSTs for vacuolar accumulation. The gene encoding a GST protein that is involved in anthocyanin sequestration from Litchi chinensis Sonn. has not been reported. Here, LcGST4, an anthocyanin-related GST, was identified and characterized. Phylogenetic analysis showed that LcGST4 was clustered with other known anthocyanin-related GSTs in the same clade. Expression analysis revealed that the expression pattern of LcGST4 was strongly correlated with anthocyanin accumulation in litchi. ABA- and light-responsive elements were found in the LcGST4 promoter, which is in agreement with the result that the expression of LcGST4 was induced by both ABA and debagging treatment. A GST activity assay in vitro verified that the LcGST4 protein shared universal activity with the GST family. Functional complementation of an Arabidopsis mutant tt19 demonstrated that LcGST4 might function in anthocyanin accumulation in litchi. Dual luciferase assay revealed that the expression of LcGST4 was activated by LcMYB1, a key R2R3-MYB transcription factor that regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in litchi.
KeywordsAnthocyanin Litchi chinensis Sonn. Glutathione S-transferase
ATP binding cassette
Days after anthesis
Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion
The project was supported by the Special Fund for Agro-Scientific Research in the Public Interest (Project No. 20090344-5), the China Litchi and Longan Industry Technology Research System (Project No. CARS-33), the National Natural Science Fund of China (Project No. 30971985) and YangFan Innovative and Entrepreneurial Research Team Project (No. 2014YT02H013). The authors thank Satoshi Kitamura for kindly providing tt19-1 seeds, and George P. Lomonossoff for providing the pEAQ-HT plasmid.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Chagne D, Lin-Wang K, Espley RV, Volz RK, How NM, Rouse S, Brendolise C, Carlisle CM, Kumar S, De Silva N, Micheletti D, McGhie T, Crowhurst RN, Storey RD, Velasco R, Hellens RP, Gardiner SE, Allan AC (2012) An ancient duplication of apple MYB transcription factors is responsible for novel red fruit-flesh phenotypes. Plant Physiol 161:225–239CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Chen D, Li P, Hu G, Ouyang R, Gao F, Wang W (1999) Effect of bagging on fruit coloration of Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn. cv. Feizixiao). J South China Agric Univ 20(4):65–69Google Scholar
- Conn S, Curtin C, Bezier A, Franco C, Zhang W (2008) Purification, molecular cloning, and characterization of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) from pigmented Vitis vinifera L. cell suspension cultures as putative anthocyanin transport proteins. J Exp Bot 59:3621–3634CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Francisco RM, Regalado A, Ageorges A, Burla BJ, Bassin B, Eisenach C, Zarrouk O, Vialet S, Marlin T, Chaves MM, Martinoia E, Nagy R (2013) ABCC1, an ATP binding cassette protein from grape berry, transports anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosides. Plant Cell 25:1840–1854CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Licciardello C, D’Agostino N, Traini A, Recupero GR, Frusciante L, Chiusano ML (2014) Characterization of the glutathione S-transferase gene family through ESTs and expression analyses within common and pigmented cultivars of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck. BMC Plant Biol 14:39CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Marinova K, Pourcel L, Weder B, Schwarz M, Barron D, Routaboul JM, Debeaujon I, Klein M (2007) The Arabidopsis MATE transporter TT12 acts as a vacuolar flavonoid/H+-antiporter active in proanthocyanidin-accumulating cells of the seed coat. Plant Cell 19:2023–2038CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Sappl PG, Carroll AJ, Clifton R, Lister R, Whelan J, Harvey Millar A, Singh KB (2009) The Arabidopsis glutathione transferase gene family displays complex stress regulation and co-silencing multiple genes results in altered metabolic sensitivity to oxidative stress. Plant J 58:53–68CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tohge T, Nishiyama Y, Hirai MY, Yano M, Nakajima J, Awazuhara M, Inoue E, Takahashi H, Goodenowe DB, Kitayama M, Noji M, Yamazaki M, Saito K (2005) Functional genomics by integrated analysis of metabolome and transcriptome of Arabidopsis plants over-expressing an MYB transcription factor. Plant J 42:218–235CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar