Plant Cell Reports

, Volume 35, Issue 1, pp 227–238 | Cite as

Cytokinin profiles in ex vitro acclimatized Eucomis autumnalis plants pre-treated with smoke-derived karrikinolide

  • Adeyemi O. Aremu
  • Lenka Plačková
  • Ondřej Novák
  • Wendy A. Stirk
  • Karel Doležal
  • Johannes Van StadenEmail author
Original Article


Key message

The current evidence of regulatory effect of smoke–water (SW) and karrikinolide (KAR 1 ) on the concentrations of endogenous cytokinins in plants partly explain the basis for their growth stimulatory activity.


Karrikinolide (KAR1) which is derived from smoke–water (SW) is involved in some physiological aspects in the life-cycle of plants. This suggests a potential influence on the endogenous pool (quantity and quality) of phytohormones such as cytokinins (CKs). In the current study, the effect of SW (1:500; 1:1000; 1:1500 v/v dilutions) and KAR1 (10−7; 10−8; 10−9 M) applied during micropropagation of Eucomis autumnalis subspecies autumnalis on the ex vitro growth and CKs after 4 months post-flask duration was evaluated. The interactions of SW and KAR1 with benzyladenine (BA), α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) or BA+NAA were also assessed. Plants treated with SW (1:500) and KAR1 (10−8 M) demonstrated superior growth in terms of the rooting, leaf and bulb sizes and fresh biomass than the control and plants treated with BA and BA+NAA. However, plant growth was generally inhibited with either SW (1:500) or KAR1 (10−8 M) and BA when compared to BA (alone) treatment. Relative to NAA treatment, the presence of KAR1 (10−7 M) with NAA significantly increased the leaf area and fresh biomass. Both SW and KAR1-treated plants accumulated more total CKs, mainly isoprenoid-type than the control and NAA-treated plants. The highest CK content was also accumulated in SW (1:500) with BA+NAA treatments. Similar stimulatory effects were observed with increasing concentrations of KAR1 and BA. The current findings establish that SW and KAR1 exert significant influence on the endogenous CK pools. However, the better growth of plants treated with SW and KAR1 treatments was not exclusively related to the endogenous CKs.


Acclimatization Asparagaceae Conservation Medicinal plants Plant growth regulators UHPLC 



Analysis of variance


N 6-Benzyladenine


N 6-Benzyladenine-9-glucoside








cis-Zeatin riboside


cis-Zeatin riboside-5′-monophosphate


cis-Zeatin riboside-O-glucoside




Dihydrozeatin riboside


Dihydrozeatin riboside-5′-monophosphate


Dihydrozeatin riboside-O-glucoside


Electro-spray interface


N 6-Isopentenyladenine


N 6-Isopentenyladenosine


N 6-Isopentenyladenosine-5′-monophosphate




Multiple reaction monitoring


Murashige and Skoog medium




meta-Topolin O-glucoside


meta-Topolin riboside


meta-Topolin riboside-5′-monophosphate


meta-Topolin riboside-O-glucoside


α-Naphthaleneacetic acid


Plant growth regulator


Photosynthetic photon flux density


Plant tissue culture












trans-Zeatin riboside


trans-Zeatin riboside-5′-monophosphate


trans-Zeatin riboside-O-glucoside


Ultra high performance liquid chromatography



We thank the two anonymous reviewers and editor for their effort in improving our manuscript. Financial support from the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN) and the National Research Foundation (98028), South Africa is gratefully appreciated. This work was co-financed by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports, Czech Republic (Grant LO1204 from the National Program of Sustainability) and IGA of Palacký University (Grant IGA_PrF_2015_024). O.N. thanks the Program “Návrat” for Research, Development and Innovations (no. LK21306). We thank Mrs Alison Young of the UKZN Botanical Garden and her Staff for their help during the greenhouse experiments.

Author contribution statement

AOA conceived the research idea, designed the experiments and carried out the in vitro propagation and greenhouse experiments. LP and ON were involved in the analysis and quantification of the cytokinins. AOA and WAS prepared the draft manuscript while all authors edited and approved the final version. KD and JVS coordinated and supervised the project.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

We declare no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

299_2015_1881_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (42 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLSX 42 kb)
299_2015_1881_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx (43 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (XLSX 43 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adeyemi O. Aremu
    • 1
  • Lenka Plačková
    • 2
  • Ondřej Novák
    • 2
  • Wendy A. Stirk
    • 1
  • Karel Doležal
    • 2
  • Johannes Van Staden
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Research Centre for Plant Growth and Development, School of Life SciencesUniversity of KwaZulu-Natal PietermaritzburgScottsvilleSouth Africa
  2. 2.Laboratory of Growth Regulators and Department of Chemical Biology and Genetics, Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research, Faculty of SciencePalacký University and Institute of Experimental Botany ASCROlomoucCzech Republic

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